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院系:俄文/簡介

来自维基学院

字母[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

俄文共有33個字母(十個母音、二十三個子音),其中兩個字母(Ь和Ъ)用於改變前一個輔音的發音。

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё
[a] 像是英文的car [be] 像是英文的back [ve] 像是英文的van [ge] 像是英文的game [de] 像是英文的den [ie] 像是英文的yell [io] 像是英文的york
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Л л М м
[zhe] 像是英文的meas'ure [ze] 像是英文的roze [i] 像是英文的eel [ji], [short i] 像是英文的bonsai [ka] 像是英文的cat [el'] 像是英文的lemon, but as soft as in Spanish el [em] 像是英文的mammal
Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
[en] 像是英文的note [o] 像是英文的bore [pe] 像是英文的pet [er] 像是英文的break [es] 像是英文的some [te] 像是英文的tail [u] 像是英文的tune
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ ъ
[ef] 像是英文的fall [ha] 像是英文的home,但更重,或是向蘇格蘭語的loch [ce] 像是英文的tsetse [che] 像是英文的cherry [sha] 像是英文的shell [s'ha] 像是英文的shield,應該要比Ш/sh輕 [tvyor-diy znakj ]
[hard mark] [1].
ы ь Э э Ю ю Я я
[y, back i] i 像是英文的sick, [2] [myàkh-keey znak][soft mark] [3] [e] 像是英文的fell [ju] 像是英文的you [ja] 像是英文的yard

33個俄文字母發音

恭喜你學完字母表了,下一步第一課

語音學[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

俄語語音對外語使用者來說最大的問題是顎音化。俄語中幾乎所有的輔音都有兩種發音方式:非齶化(稱為"硬")和齶化(稱為"軟")。輔音的品質主要取決於下面的母音,並反映在書寫上。如果下面的字母是И、Е、Ю、Я或Ё,那麼這個輔音就是軟齶化的,也就是說在發音的時候要把舌頭的中間部分抬高。如果下面的輔音字母是А, О, У, Ы, Э,那麼這個輔音就是硬齶化,非齶化。最後一個輔音的齶化以及有時另一個輔音前的輔音的齶化都用字母Ь標記。有些輔音總是硬的(Ж,Ш,Ц),有些總是軟的(Щ,Ч),不管後面的字母是什麼。例如:мышь(滑鼠)中的最後一個音與шàпка(帽子)中的第一個相同,而且該音是硬的。

定冠詞[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

和中文一樣,俄文並不使用定冠詞(英文就有:a/an/the)。

名詞[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

与许多其他语言(如英文)一样,俄语的名词也有几种 "形式"。这些情况反映了名词的使用环境,有助于他人理解。这些情况是:名词性、属名词性、介词性、名词性。此外,名词也有固有的性别和腭化(或硬或软)。

Verb Tenses or Cases[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Nominative Case[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

The Nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. For example, "The cat is here!" = "Кошка тут!" Note: Russian lacks the present tense of the verb "to be." If you wish to declare something, you would say "Это кошка!" or "This is a cat!"

Masculine ♂️ Feminine ♀️ Neuter
Книга Окно
Кот Кошка Окно
Телефон Вода Солнце
Океан Япония Озеро


As you can see in the chart to the right, Masculine Nominative nouns tend to end in consonants, while Feminine Nominative nouns end in "a" or "я," and Neuter Nominative nouns end in "е" or "о."

Another use for the Nominative case is labeling. For example, if you wished to say that you are a student, you would simply say "Я студент/студентка" (male or female, respectively). Again, there is no Russian for the present tense of "to be" so "is" is dropped. This works the same for adjectives, as you can label something with the Nominative case: "Студент - умный," or "the student is smart."


更多代名詞的例子:

  • Джон учит русский язык. = 约翰正在学习俄语。
    • John is the nominative because he is performing the action.
  • Кошка пьет молоко. = The (female) cat drinks milk.
    • The cat is the nominative because it is performing the action.
  • Апельсин - фрукт = Orange is a fruit.
    • Nominative case is roughly the equivalent of the 'to be' structure in English.
  • Она - учитель = She is a teacher. (NB:Russians are very particular about usage of teacher and professor).
    • Russians use a dash to indicate the verb 'to be'.
  • Стул отремонтирован. = The (♂️)chair is repaired.
    • The chair is the nominative because it was acted upon. In this instance the acting agent is unknown. This is the passive voice in English.

Accusative Case[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

The Accusative case is used with direct objects and certain prepositions. For example, "I love you" = "Я люблю тебя," where "тебя" is the accusative form of "you." Furthermore there exists a distinction between "animate" and "inanimate" nouns. Animate nouns include people and animals. Inanimate nouns include mostly everything else. Masculine inanimate nouns do not change from the Nominative case. Masculine animate nouns take on the GENITIVE case when used as a direct object or with a preposition. Feminine and neuter nouns do not make this distinction (for now). To illustrate this:


Accusative Endings
Masculine (animate) Masculine (inanimate) Feminine Neuter
а/я -- у/ю --

The prepositions that use the Accusative case are в, на. Using these prepositions with the accusative case of the noun mean "direction towards a place." This is opposed to using в, на with the prepositional case, which means location. That is for later, however.

Genitive Case[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Prepositional Case[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Dative Case[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Instrumental Case[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

數字[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

在俄语中,20以上的数字与英语相似,將20("двадцать")放在前面,然后後面加上個位数("один")。例如:21 = двадцать один, 55 = пятьдесят пять, 126 = сто двадцать шесть.

數字 俄文 音標 數字 俄文 音標 數字 俄文 音標
0 ноль [nol'] 10 десять [d'esyit'] 20 двадцать [dvatsat']
1 один [odin] 11 одиннадцать [odinnatsat'] 30 тридцать [tritsat']
2 два [dva] 12 двенадцать [dv'enatsat'] 40 сорок [sorok]
3 три [tri] 13 тринадцать [trinatsat'] 50 пятьдесят [pyat'desyat]
4 четыре [chetyre] 14 четырнадцать [chetirnatsat'] 60 шестьдесят [shest'desyat]
5 пять [pyat'] 15 пятнадцать [pyatnatsat'] 70 семьдесят [sem'desyat]
6 шесть [shest'] 16 шестнадцать [shestnatsat'] 80 восемьдесят [vosem'desyat]
7 семь [sem'] 17 семнадцать [semnatsat'] 90 девяносто [devyanosto]
8 восемь [vosem'] 18 восемнадцать [vosemnatsat'] 100 сто [sto]
9 девять [d'evyit'] 19 девятнадцать [devyatnatsat'] 1,000 тысяча [tis'acha]

请注意,这些数字是基数,与序数不同,即 "第一 "(1th)或 "第二"(2th)。在俄语中,基数被视为形容词,其形式略有不同。

如何用俄文說1到10

數字用法[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

当使用俄语数字来量化一个数量时,例如四条狗,名词的大小写取决于前面的数字。如果你有一个对象,你保留名词单数的情况。如果你有两到四个对象,你就用属名词单数格。如果你有五个或更多,那么你使用属名复数格。对于零,你使用属名复数的情况。这不能与 "Нет"一词混淆,后者的意思是 "没有 "或 "没有这样的東西存在",其中的大小写通常是属名单数。

1 2-4 5-0
Nom Sing Gen Sing Gen Pl

第2课中进一步练习和如何说和詢問时间。

人称代词[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

在俄文中有幾組不同的代詞,代词的功能与它所代替的名词相同。第一組是人稱代詞。

人稱代詞(主格)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

俄文 發音 中文
я [ya]
ты [ti]
он [on]
она [ona]
оно [ono]
мы [mi] 我們
вы [vi] 你(妳)們
они [oni] 它們

指称性代词(受格)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

俄文 發音 中文
меня [menya]
тебя [tebya]
его [yevo]
её [yeyo]
его [yevo]
нас [nas] 我們
вас [vas] 你(妳)們
их [ich] 它們

你可能注意到以上兩個表格的中文都是一樣的,因為中文無此分別。

形容詞[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Adjectives in Russian are declined based on the case, gender and plurality of the noun that they modify. In Russian, genders are broken down into: Masculine, Feminine and Neuter. There are six cases: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental, and Prepositional. For plurality, there is singular and plural. This can get very complicated, however.


Adjectival Endings (Inanimate, Hard)
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative ый/ой ая ое ые
Accusative ый/ой ую ое ые
Genitive ого ой ого ых
Prepositional ом ой ом ых
Dative ому ой ому ым
Instrumental ым ой ым ыми

動詞[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

俄语的動詞和英文一樣有3个基本时态:现在式、过去式和未來式。

現在式[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

動詞固定型

我们以俄语动词的不定式 "работать "为例。撇开 "ть",在上下面的附加词。

  • Икскс работать - 某某某在工作。
  • Я работаю - 我在工作。
  • Ты работаешь - 他在工作。
  • Он, Она, Оно работает - 他,她,它在工作。
  • Мы работаем - 我們在工作。
  • Вы работаете - 你(妳)們在工作。
  • Они работают - 他(她)們在工作。

動詞不固定型

一些以 "ить "结尾的动词需要有一些区别。比如说:

д变成ж,з变成ж,c变成ш,ct变成щ,т变成ч,而对于б、в、м、п、ф、л則添加字母л。 记住,这只适用于第一人称单数(Я)。

  • говорить = 說話
  • Я говорю = 我說話
  • Ты говоришь = 你說話。
  • Он, Она, Оно говорит = 他,她,它說話。
  • Мы говорим = 我們說話。
  • Вы говорите = 你(妳)們說話。
  • Они говорят = 他(她)們說話。

Saying "What" in Russian[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Что is used as an interrogative pronoun. Likewise, if you see an object you have never seen before, and have no idea what it is, then you ask the question of "что это?" which means "What's this?" or "What's that?"

  • Что ты делаешь? =What are you doing?
  • Что мы хотим есть? =What do we want to eat?
  • Что мне купить в магазине? =What should I buy at the store?

Что такое is used when the object has been named or introduced, but you want more information on it. For instance: Что это? Это машина! Что такое машина? translates to: What's this? It's a machine! What's a machine?

  • Что такое компьютер? (What is a computer?)
  • Что такое водка? (What is vodka? [although this phrase is rarely spoken in Russian])
  • Что такое Южная Осетия? (What is South Ossetia?)

If you wish to ask what type or variant something is, 像是英文的the sentence: "What type of computer is this?" then you use the adjective какой which declines depending upon its case. Note, it is an irregular adjective.

  • Какая эта водка? =What kind of vodka is this?
  • Какой это компьютер? =What kind of computer?
  • Какое это слово? =What kind of word is that?

If you ask what a living creature, like a pet or a family member, is, you use the word кто (who), and apply it to the question: Кто это?

Saying "For" in Russian[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Russian has many words that translate to the English "for". Here are some examples.

For recipient use of the word "for" such as "I have a present for you.", one uses the Dative cases.

  • Это всё мне? (Is this for me?)
  • Я принёс новые игры Ивану (I brought new games for Ivan.)
  • Когда я куплю новую шапку папе? (When will I buy a new cap for father?)

For expressing "for the benefit of", such as "Anna reads better than Ivan, therefore Anna reads for him.", one uses для + Genitive.

  • Мне нужна помощь для школы. (I need help for school.)
  • Я сделала это для него. (I did it for him.)
  • Ты можешь прочитать газету для твоей бабушки? (Can you read the newspaper for your grandmother?)

For expressing "exchange" or "replacement", one uses за + Accusative.

  • Они говорят за меня. (They spoke [instead of/for] me.)
  • Спасибо за билеты. (Thanks for the tickets.) 关于这个音频文件 Listen
  • Дай мне совет за деньги! (Give me advice for money!)[often used ironically]

Duration of time (During the action) uses the Accusative case.

  • Он пил три часа (He has been drinking for three hours.)
Она читала всего пять минут. 关于这个音频文件 Listen (RU)
(She has been reading for only five minutes.)

Duration of time (After the action) uses на + Accusative.

To express "to get" as in "He went for some food." one uses за + Instrumental.

  • Она пошла в магазин за продуктами. (She went to the store for products/items/groceries.)
  • Он пошёл на кухню за чипсами. (He went to the kitchen for chips.)

To express "I am for taxes." as in "I support taxes", one uses за + Accusative. (против + Genitive is the opposite.)

  • Я за социализм. (I am for socialism./I support socialism.)
  • Я против социализма. (I am not for socialism./I do not support socialism.)

Last, to express "for" in the sense of a deadline or scheduled time, one uses на + Accusative.

  • Я еду в Россию на зиму. (I am going to Russia for the winter.)
  • Задание на завтра. (Homework for tomorrow.)

Essential phrases[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

working[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Они начали работу. =They started working.[4]

生活實用[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Это моя квартира. =这是我的公寓。
  • Мы живём большом доме. = We live in a big house.
  • Вы живёте в доме или в квартире? = Do you live in a house or in an apartment? (formal)

clarification[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • понимаете меня? = Do you understand me? (inf)
  • Ну, видите ль? = Well, you see eh?
  • Да чего вы скупитесь? = Yes, what do you mean?
  • Что это за люди? = Who are these people?
  • вы уж собираетесь ехать? = You really want to go.

道歉[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Извините, [iz-vee-NEAT-ye] = 對不起。
  • Простите, [pras-TEET-ye] = 不好意思。
  • Простите, я не подумал. = I'm sorry, I was not thinking.

Danger[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Это очень опасно! = 這很危險!

Warning[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Не ставь! = Don't put (it there).
  • Держи! = Hold it!
  • Срочно! = It's urgent!

接受道歉[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Ничего!= 沒關係!別在意!那不重要!
  • Не беспокойтесь = 別擔心

informal greetings and good byes[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Как дела? [kak dee-LA] = How are you?
  • Как поживаешь? = How are you?
  • Привет! [pri-VYET] = Hello! (Informal)
  • Здравствуйте! [ZDRAST-vooy-tye] = Hello! (Formal)
  • Пока! [pa-KA] = Bye! (Informal)
  • До свидания! [da-svee-DAN-ee-ya] = Bye! (Formal)
  • Очень приятно! [O-chin Pri-YAT-na] Nice to meet you! (Formal)
  • Каково почивали? = Rested?

反對[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Хорошо [hara-SHO] = Fine
  • Плохо [PLO-ha] = Bad
  • Вроде нет. = No, sort of.
  • Вроде да. = Yes, sort of.

幫忙![编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Мне нужна помощь! [mnyeh noozh-NAH PO-mash'] = 我需要幫忙,幫忙!
  • потому, что я тупенький. = Because I'm stupid.

介紹[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Как тебя зовут? [kak tee-BYA za-VOOT] = What is your name?
  • Меня зовут... [mee-NYA za-VOOT] = My name is…

miscellaneous[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Так вы полагаете? = So what do you think?
  • какое пекло! = What the hell?

informing[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • В туалете грязно. = The bathroom is dirty.
  • Окна грязные. = The windows are dirty. (note change in грязн*)
  • Пол влажный. = The floor is wet.
  • Я устал! = I am tired.
  • Важно, что я – тут = What's important is that I am here.

離開和到來[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • мы уходим. = 我們離開了。
  • -Я вернусь. = 我會回來。

distance phrases[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

далеко они? = Are they far?

第一次小測[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

1 “Я прибываю”是什麼意思?

Я прибываю = 我到了
Я прибываю = 你到了
Я прибываю = 他到了
Я прибываю = 她到了

2 選擇“для какие причин вам это нужно”的最佳翻譯。

為什麼你需要它?
這值多少?
誰在問問題?


quiz 2 directions[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

1 Вы не подскажете, где здесь туалет?是什麼意思?

不好意思,廁所是不是在附近?
往左轉
你很急嗎?
往右轉
入口在哪?

2 What does:налево [nah-LYE-va]mean?

往左轉
你很急嗎?
往右轉
入口在哪?

3 What does:направо [nah-PRA-va]mean?

往右轉
往左轉
你很急嗎?
入口在哪?

4 What does:вы так спешите?mean?

你很急嗎?
往左轉
入口在哪?
往右轉

5 What does:Скажите пожалуйста, где здесь банк?mean?

不好意思,銀行是不是在附近?
往左轉
入口在哪?
往右轉

6 What does:Где здесь вход?mean?

入口在哪?
不好意思,銀行是不是在附近?
往左轉
往右轉


See also[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

维基百科中的相关条目:

References[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  1. to prevent preceding consonant from being palatalized by the following vowel
  2. 在你的嘴巴後面接近喉嚨地方發音
  3. 使前面的輔音聽起來柔和,齶化。例如,比較一夏l'ife'和l've的l's
  4. https://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%87%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C

External links[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

On the subpage, place links to web sites which provide free resources that may aid in the learning of Russian. Regular Wikiversitans, participating generally here, may add or comment on links. See instructions on the subpage. Please do not add new links here without discussion. Such links may be removed without further attention.