基礎訪談技巧

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課程目標(翻譯中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

透過完善答問及追蹤方式,幫助設計者建立深層同理心 To help the designer develop deeper empathy through well thought out questioning and follow up.

所需時間[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

面談可以從10分鐘到1小時,全看面談的主題及挑戰內容。 Interviews can run from 10 - 60 min depending on interview subject and the challenge

組團大小[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

小團體/2人小團體 Small groups/groups of 2

什麼是基礎訪談?(翻譯中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

訪談是種與座談者對話的方式。想想當你與某人對話,比光光面談及調查還要好。這種思考模式可以讓我們往深層面挖掘,詢問更艱澀的問題。與座談者交談時間到了尾聲時,你會想已抓到這個人所說的所做的內涵,還有你達到瞭解這個人所想及所感受的。 Interviewing is a way to engage users. Think of it as engaging with someone, rather than interviewing or surveying someone. This mindset allows us to seek the deeper insights and ask the harder questions. At the end of your time with a user, you want to have captured what that person said and did, and you want to have an understanding of what that person thinks and feels.

為什麼要訪談?(翻譯中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

我們想要學生們以一個使用者身份來瞭解人的經驗,這樣的話,我們可以決定如何革新。藉由瞭解人們的決定以及人們所投入的行為,我們可以識別出需求並且做出專屬設計。 We want for students to understand a person's experience as a user in the space so that we can determine how to innovate for him/her. By understanding the choices that person makes and the behaviors that person engages in, we can identify needs and design for these needs.

如何為一個基礎訪談做準備?(翻譯中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

腦力激盪問題集 Brainstorm questions[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

在手寫形式下,獲得全部你的小組所提出具潛力的問題。試著藉由建立在另一個創意上得到有意義主題範圍。 Get all of the potential questions your team can generate down in written format.Try to build on one another’s ideas in order to flesh out meaningful subject areas.

鑑定及分類主題 Identify and order themes[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

在同化方式近似于「分組」。你要你的小組鑑別多數問題都落于哪個主題或是主旨;一旦你已經分別出合乎你主題之問題,決定順序,讓這個順序可以讓談話更流暢。這將可以建構你的訪談流程,降低潛在於你使用者主持看似毫無目標的互動。 Similar to “grouping” in synthesis, have your team identify themes or subject areas into which most questions fall; once you’ve identified the themes of your question-pool, determine the order that would allow the conversation to flow most naturally. This will enable you to structure the flow of your interview, decreasing the potential for hosting a seemingly-scattershot interaction with your user.

精化問題Refine questions[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

一旦問題分門別類後,你或許可找出對話中多餘的部分,或者是跟你主題看起來似乎無關。稍微花點時間對你的計劃保有空間去詢問很多問題,例如「為什麼?」「告訴我最後一次你_____?」然後這些問題是直接指出這群使用者如何"感受" Once you have all the questions grouped by theme and order, you may find that there are some redundant areas of conversation, or questions that seem strangely out of place.Take a few moments to make sure that you leave room in your planning to ask plenty of “why?” questions, plenty of “tell me about the last time you _____?” questions, and plenty of questions that are directed at how the user FEELS.

如何訪談?(翻譯中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 絕不在提問時說"通常" Never say “usually” when asking a question.

相反地,問一些特定例子或情況,例如:告訴我最後一次你_______。Instead, ask about a specific instance or occurrence, such as “tell me about the last time you ______”

  • 詢問原因 Ask why.

即便你想你知道答案,還是詢問人們為什麼做這些事或說這些話。有時候他們的答案會出乎意料。而對話就是起始于一個問題,然後一直延續到最後。Even when you think you know the answer, ask people why they do or say things.The answers will sometimes surprise you. A conversation started from one question should go on as long as it needs to.

  • 激發說故事 Encourage stories.

不管故事是真是假,故事能揭發說書人的世界觀。詢問一些能激發人們說書的問題。Whether or not the stories people tell are true, they reveal how they think about the world.Ask questions that get people telling stories.

  • 找尋矛盾處 Look for inconsistencies.

有時人們說與做是兩回事,而這種矛盾處時常隱藏有趣的觀點。Sometimes what people say and what they do are different.These inconsistencies often hide interesting insights.

  • 傾聽非語言的聲音Listen to nonverbal cues.

留意肢體語言以及情緒語言 Be aware of body language and emotions.

  • 別害怕沈默 Don’t be afraid of silence.

提問者往往覺得在停頓時就該問下一個問題。其實不然,因為這類停頓有可能只是回答者正回想到跟所說內容有關的東西,而或許甚至能挖掘更深層面。Interviewers often feel the need to ask another question when there is a pause.If you allow for silence, a person can reflect on what they’ve just said and may reveal something deeper.

  • 不要給引導答案 Don’t suggest answers to your questions.

即便他們在答之前停頓也不可用引導幫助他們。這樣的話,可以不經意地得到出合乎你期望的回答。Even if they pause before answering, don’t help them by suggesting an answer.This can unintentionally get people to say things that agree with your expectations.

  • 詢問中性問題 Ask questions neutrally.

"關於這個點子你有什麼想法?"比"你覺得這個點子好嗎?"還來的恰當。因為第一個問題裡不能暗指有正確答案。“What do you think about this idea?” is a better question than “Don’t you think this idea is great?” because the first question doesn’t imply that there is a right answer.

  • 禁止雙問題 Don’t ask binary questions.

用一個字回答雙問題。你想主持建立於故事底下的會話。Binary questions can be answered in a word; you want to host a conversation built upon stories.

  • 每問題僅限十文字Only ten words to a question.

你的使用者會迷失于長問題裡。Your user will get lost inside long questions.

  • 一個時間裡僅限詢問一人且僅只一個問題 Only ask one question at a time, one person at a time.

抵抗衝動突擊你的使用者 Resist the urge to ambush your user.

  • 確定你已經準備好捕捉 Make sure you’re prepared to capture.

面談皆採取兩人一對。如果沒辦法,你一定要使用錄音設備(因為同時與使用者面談與做詳盡筆記是不可能的) Always interview in pairs.If this is absolutely impossible, you MUST use a voice recorder—it is impossible to engage a user and take detailed notes at the same time.

如何教導基礎面談?HOW do we teach it?[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

我們用"佔住吸引力"來談論到面談,是要提醒學生這不僅僅只是問與答的模式,而是一種你跟朋友間的深入談話。 We talk about interviewing using the term 'engage' to remind students that it's not merely a question and answer interview, but an engaging conversation that you might have with a friend.

剖析訪談 ANATOMY OF AN INTERVIEW[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

我們可以用首次面談剖析地圖來教導基礎面談。在地圖的每一個部分互相聯貫We can teach interviewing by first introducing the Anatomy of an Interview Map. Each part of the map correlates to a portion of the interview which is expounded upon in the Engage Mad Libs Sheet. This Map provides a skeleton for what an interview might look like, and the Mad Lib provides a way for the interviewer to interact with the interview structure as well as subsequently build on the interview structure.

示範課程 (45分鐘) Sample Lesson (45 min)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

教材[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

紙、鉛筆、記錄器材 Paper, Pencil, recording device

課程內容[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

一般介紹:5分鐘 General Introduction: 5 min[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

給學生們簡短介紹以及概念說明其重要性及如何達到(這可以從上述筆記獲得) Give students a quick introduction to interviewing and an overview of why it is important and how to approach (this can be taken from the notes above).

訪談準備:10分鐘 Interview Prep: 10 Min[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

將學生兩兩分組,並要求他們準備採訪對方的問題,訪談主題可以根據你現行的的挑戰做變化。如果你採用範例作為訪談主題例如"從你的夥伴 Break students into pairs and ask them to each prepare interview questions for each other. The topic of the interview can vary based on the overall challenge you are working on. If you are just doing the interview exercise some sample interview topics are "Learn about how your partner likes to eat" or "Learn about what is stressing your partner out." Provide students with the guidelines from the "how to interview section" of this page to guide them in developing their interview questions.

訪談:20分鐘 Interview: 20 min (10 min for each person)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

要學生們向對方執行訪談,每位10分鐘的時間。 Have students perform their interviews on one another. Each partner has 10 minutes to interview the other.

尾聲:10分鐘 Wrap up: 10 min[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

結束小組訪談,與大家報告及分享他們從過程中所學習到的。下列為一些共同報告的內容:

  1. 分享訪談中兩個主要的見解
  2. 什麼是最困難的地方?
  3. 如果讓你再重做一次,哪些你會做不一樣的改變?
  4. 什麼是讓你最驚訝的?

Bring the group back together to debrief and share what they learned through the process. Some same debrief questions are:

  1. Share two major insights from your interview
  2. What was the most challenging part?
  3. If you had it to do again what would you do differently?
  4. What did you learn that surprised you the most?

參見(相關標籤)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Engage
  • Empathy
  • Understand
  • Observe
  • Anatomy of an Interview
  • Anatomy
  • Interview
  • Needfinding
  • Ethnography
  • Research
  • Field Research

參考文獻[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Anatomy of an Interview Map--Michael Barry

下載資源[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Download file "Interview_card.ppt"

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