基础访谈技巧

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课程目标(翻译中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

透过完善答问及追踪方式,帮助设计者建立深层同理心 To help the designer develop deeper empathy through well thought out questioning and follow up.

所需时间[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

面谈可以从10分钟到1小时,全看面谈的主题及挑战内容。 Interviews can run from 10 - 60 min depending on interview subject and the challenge

组团大小[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

小团体/2人小团体 Small groups/groups of 2

什么是基础访谈?(翻译中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

访谈是种与座谈者对话的方式。想想当你与某人对话,比光光面谈及调查还要好。这种思考模式可以让我们往深层面挖掘,询问更艰涩的问题。与座谈者交谈时间到了尾声时,你会想已抓到这个人所说的所做的内涵,还有你达到了解这个人所想及所感受的。 Interviewing is a way to engage users. Think of it as engaging with someone, rather than interviewing or surveying someone. This mindset allows us to seek the deeper insights and ask the harder questions. At the end of your time with a user, you want to have captured what that person said and did, and you want to have an understanding of what that person thinks and feels.

为什么要访谈?(翻译中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

我们想要学生们以一个使用者身份来了解人的经验,这样的话,我们可以决定如何革新。借由了解人们的决定以及人们所投入的行为,我们可以识别出需求并且做出专属设计。 We want for students to understand a person's experience as a user in the space so that we can determine how to innovate for him/her. By understanding the choices that person makes and the behaviors that person engages in, we can identify needs and design for these needs.

如何为一个基础访谈做准备?(翻译中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

脑力激荡问题集 Brainstorm questions[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

在手写形式下,获得全部你的小组所提出具潜力的问题。试著借由建立在另一个创意上得到有意义主题范围。 Get all of the potential questions your team can generate down in written format.Try to build on one another’s ideas in order to flesh out meaningful subject areas.

鉴定及分类主题 Identify and order themes[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

在同化方式近似于“分组”。你要你的小组鉴别多数问题都落于哪个主题或是主旨;一旦你已经分别出合乎你主题之问题,决定顺序,让这个顺序可以让谈话更流畅。这将可以建构你的访谈流程,降低潜在于你使用者主持看似毫无目标的互动。 Similar to “grouping” in synthesis, have your team identify themes or subject areas into which most questions fall; once you’ve identified the themes of your question-pool, determine the order that would allow the conversation to flow most naturally. This will enable you to structure the flow of your interview, decreasing the potential for hosting a seemingly-scattershot interaction with your user.

精化问题Refine questions[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

一旦问题分门别类后,你或许可找出对话中多馀的部分,或者是跟你主题看起来似乎无关。稍微花点时间对你的计划保有空间去询问很多问题,例如“为什么?”“告诉我最后一次你_____?”然后这些问题是直接指出这群使用者如何"感受" Once you have all the questions grouped by theme and order, you may find that there are some redundant areas of conversation, or questions that seem strangely out of place.Take a few moments to make sure that you leave room in your planning to ask plenty of “why?” questions, plenty of “tell me about the last time you _____?” questions, and plenty of questions that are directed at how the user FEELS.

如何访谈?(翻译中)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 绝不在提问时说"通常" Never say “usually” when asking a question.

相反地,问一些特定例子或情况,例如:告诉我最后一次你_______。Instead, ask about a specific instance or occurrence, such as “tell me about the last time you ______”

  • 询问原因 Ask why.

即便你想你知道答案,还是询问人们为什么做这些事或说这些话。有时候他们的答案会出乎意料。而对话就是起始于一个问题,然后一直延续到最后。Even when you think you know the answer, ask people why they do or say things.The answers will sometimes surprise you. A conversation started from one question should go on as long as it needs to.

  • 激发说故事 Encourage stories.

不管故事是真是假,故事能揭发说书人的世界观。询问一些能激发人们说书的问题。Whether or not the stories people tell are true, they reveal how they think about the world.Ask questions that get people telling stories.

  • 找寻矛盾处 Look for inconsistencies.

有时人们说与做是两回事,而这种矛盾处时常隐藏有趣的观点。Sometimes what people say and what they do are different.These inconsistencies often hide interesting insights.

  • 倾听非语言的声音Listen to nonverbal cues.

留意肢体语言以及情绪语言 Be aware of body language and emotions.

  • 别害怕沉默 Don’t be afraid of silence.

提问者往往觉得在停顿时就该问下一个问题。其实不然,因为这类停顿有可能只是回答者正回想到跟所说内容有关的东西,而或许甚至能挖掘更深层面。Interviewers often feel the need to ask another question when there is a pause.If you allow for silence, a person can reflect on what they’ve just said and may reveal something deeper.

  • 不要给引导答案 Don’t suggest answers to your questions.

即便他们在答之前停顿也不可用引导帮助他们。这样的话,可以不经意地得到出合乎你期望的回答。Even if they pause before answering, don’t help them by suggesting an answer.This can unintentionally get people to say things that agree with your expectations.

  • 询问中性问题 Ask questions neutrally.

"关于这个点子你有什么想法?"比"你觉得这个点子好吗?"还来的恰当。因为第一个问题里不能暗指有正确答案。“What do you think about this idea?” is a better question than “Don’t you think this idea is great?” because the first question doesn’t imply that there is a right answer.

  • 禁止双问题 Don’t ask binary questions.

用一个字回答双问题。你想主持建立于故事底下的会话。Binary questions can be answered in a word; you want to host a conversation built upon stories.

  • 每问题仅限十文字Only ten words to a question.

你的使用者会迷失于长问题里。Your user will get lost inside long questions.

  • 一个时间里仅限询问一人且仅只一个问题 Only ask one question at a time, one person at a time.

抵抗冲动突击你的使用者 Resist the urge to ambush your user.

  • 确定你已经准备好捕捉 Make sure you’re prepared to capture.

面谈皆采取两人一对。如果没办法,你一定要使用录音设备(因为同时与使用者面谈与做详尽笔记是不可能的) Always interview in pairs.If this is absolutely impossible, you MUST use a voice recorder—it is impossible to engage a user and take detailed notes at the same time.

如何教导基础面谈?HOW do we teach it?[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

我们用"占住吸引力"来谈论到面谈,是要提醒学生这不仅仅只是问与答的模式,而是一种你跟朋友间的深入谈话。 We talk about interviewing using the term 'engage' to remind students that it's not merely a question and answer interview, but an engaging conversation that you might have with a friend.

剖析访谈 ANATOMY OF AN INTERVIEW[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

我们可以用首次面谈剖析地图来教导基础面谈。在地图的每一个部分互相联贯We can teach interviewing by first introducing the Anatomy of an Interview Map. Each part of the map correlates to a portion of the interview which is expounded upon in the Engage Mad Libs Sheet. This Map provides a skeleton for what an interview might look like, and the Mad Lib provides a way for the interviewer to interact with the interview structure as well as subsequently build on the interview structure.

示范课程 (45分钟) Sample Lesson (45 min)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

教材[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

纸、铅笔、记录器材 Paper, Pencil, recording device

课程内容[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

一般介绍:5分钟 General Introduction: 5 min[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

给学生们简短介绍以及概念说明其重要性及如何达到(这可以从上述笔记获得) Give students a quick introduction to interviewing and an overview of why it is important and how to approach (this can be taken from the notes above).

访谈准备:10分钟 Interview Prep: 10 Min[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

将学生两两分组,并要求他们准备采访对方的问题,访谈主题可以根据你现行的的挑战做变化。如果你采用范例作为访谈主题例如"从你的伙伴 Break students into pairs and ask them to each prepare interview questions for each other. The topic of the interview can vary based on the overall challenge you are working on. If you are just doing the interview exercise some sample interview topics are "Learn about how your partner likes to eat" or "Learn about what is stressing your partner out." Provide students with the guidelines from the "how to interview section" of this page to guide them in developing their interview questions.

访谈:20分钟 Interview: 20 min (10 min for each person)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

要学生们向对方执行访谈,每位10分钟的时间。 Have students perform their interviews on one another. Each partner has 10 minutes to interview the other.

尾声:10分钟 Wrap up: 10 min[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

结束小组访谈,与大家报告及分享他们从过程中所学习到的。下列为一些共同报告的内容:

  1. 分享访谈中两个主要的见解
  2. 什么是最困难的地方?
  3. 如果让你再重做一次,哪些你会做不一样的改变?
  4. 什么是让你最惊讶的?

Bring the group back together to debrief and share what they learned through the process. Some same debrief questions are:

  1. Share two major insights from your interview
  2. What was the most challenging part?
  3. If you had it to do again what would you do differently?
  4. What did you learn that surprised you the most?

参见(相关标签)[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • Engage
  • Empathy
  • Understand
  • Observe
  • Anatomy of an Interview
  • Anatomy
  • Interview
  • Needfinding
  • Ethnography
  • Research
  • Field Research

参考文献[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Anatomy of an Interview Map--Michael Barry

下载资源[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Download file "Interview_card.ppt"

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