欧洲食人史

来自维基学院

本条目范围限于当代欧洲地理范围内,以及殖民时代在海船上或殖民地的欧洲人的食人现象。除饥荒和围城中为了生存而食用尸体外,亦有为了复仇、医疗、异食癖以及黑魔法等目的的食人。在食人相关的文学作品中尽可能不包含对异国他者习俗的想象或投射,仅收录记载欧洲人自己食人的桥段。本条目暂不将吸血纳入食人范畴。

史前食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 在北欧发现的尼安德特人遗骨上有类似同时代動物骨上的砍凿痕迹,部分学者推测是同类相食的证据[1]
  • 在英国南部发现了有新石器时代的同类人相食的遗骸[2]
  • 约在公元前4950年,德国线纹陶文化时期在今Herxheim附近一个兴盛了几百年的村落的考古记录陡然消失,一些考古学家推测是整个村子的人被活祭或者吃掉了。[3]
A maxilla from Gough's Cave with cut marks near the teeth.
  • The 100,000-year-old bones of six Neanderthals found in the Moula-Guercy Cave, France, had been broken by other Neanderthals in such a way as to extract marrow and brains. Finds made in the Sidrón Cave in Spain also show evidence of exocannibalism.[4]
  • Genetic studies have revealed a "powerful episode" of natural selection concurrent with the extinction of the Neanderthals.[5] Drawing on hundreds of studies in relation to the kuru disease which is only known to spread through cannibalism, researchers conclude that the 127V gene, which is known only for resisting kuru-like diseases, evidences widespread cannibalism among recent humans. If modern humans and Neanderthals, who co-existed with each other at that time, practised cannibalism together, it is theorised this gene would have protected humans from the kuru-like diseases, but led to the Neanderthals' deaths, perhaps even their extinction.[6]
  • Human bones and skulls found in Gough's Cave in Somerset, England, show that around 15,000 years ago, ritual cannibalism was practiced in Stone Age Britain.[7][8]

希腊罗马时代食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 公元前88年,在米特拉达梯战争时期,罗马共和国军队在苏拉率领的部队圍困雅典城,城中粮食缺乏出现了人相食。[12]阿庇安的作品里有描述之外,现代考古也在城市广场发现了当时的約175具大人小孩遗骨和100具動物的遗骨有齒痕啃咬的痕迹[13]
  • 公园前52年,凯撒围攻高卢城镇阿莱西亚时,曾记载一名高卢贵族Critognatus建议效仿在公元前107~102年间高卢人抵抗条顿人和辛布里人入侵时的先例,将老弱病残作为军粮从而避免战败。所幸此次战事中Critognatus的建议仅被当作最后手段,并未直接采用。[16]
  • 凯撒遇刺后公元前43年的后三巨头时期,文学家西塞罗族人遭到迫害,其弟昆图斯·西塞罗因为背叛西塞罗,被其前妻Pomponia折磨并指使其释奴Philologus活活割下他的肉、炙烤并吃下。普鲁塔克质疑这段记载真实性,但仍然收录了自己的著作中。[17]
  • 公元41年,罗马暴君卡利古拉遇刺后,一些行刺者或围观者生啖其肉。[18]
  • 据弗拉维奥·约瑟夫斯记载,公元后70年罗马军队围攻耶路撒冷会战中,因战乱造成城中军民出现了人相食。[19][20]“母食其子”的表述手法在后世编年史家描述饥荒时常被挪用。[21]
  • 塔西佗阿古利可拉传记载,约在公元后82年,被征入罗马军队的日耳曼部落Usipetes发生兵变,偷走军船在海上断粮,用抽签選船员分食,直到在苏维汇人部落控制的地区靠岸出现了人相食 。[22][23]
  • St. Jerome, in his treatise Against Jovinianus, claimed that the British Attacotti were cannibals who regarded the buttocks and breasts of humans as delicacies.[25]
  • 408年西哥特首领亚拉里克围困罗马时截断了台伯河的谷物输送航线,失去了亚非利加行省粮食的罗马城内当时有近80万人口,据说出现了易子而食或者易妻而食的情况。亚拉里克得到赎金和人质后解除围城,但在409年因东西罗马的皇帝争夺罗马城,罗马再度被封锁并出现了求购人肉的情况。410年亚拉里克遭到行刺,认为是受西罗马皇帝指使,盛怒之下再次折返围困打算洗劫罗马,但据基督徒作家哲罗姆记载,西哥特人入城之前,陷入疯狂的罗马居民就已经几乎相食殆尽了。[26][27]同期苏维汇人部落入侵伊比利亚时的劫掠造成了当地饥荒,出现了人相食。有父母亲杀死子女、或邻人互烹食。[28]
  • 503年波斯围困拜占庭的阿米达城时,有妇女需要将人肉和皮靴混起来烹饪 。[29]
  • 536年,东哥特人统治的意大利饥荒,天主教早期教宗名录中记载利古里亚地区有母亲吃了她们自己的孩子。[30]539年艾米利亚-罗马涅地区也出现了类似记载。[31]

中世纪食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • In the Historia regum Britanniae, Geoffrey of Monmouth tells of the young Brian who cuts off a piece of flesh from his thigh to nourish and heal King Cadwallon, offering it to his sovereign instead of the game he has failed to procure. [33]
  • 698~700年的饥荒是爱尔兰历史学家Cormac O'Grada所发现的本国最早的人相食记载。[34]
  • 792—794欧洲地區饥荒期间出现了人相食。 [35]
  • Several authors also speak of cannibalism, both the eating of the dead (necrophagy) and the murdering of people for food. The Annales Mosellanireports cannibalism in the famine of the early 790s (C.1.54), as does the Annales Xantenses in the famine of the 860s (C.1.192), and four plausibly interrelated texts report the consumption of human corpses in the midst of the famine of the mid 890s. The Annales Besuenses, Annales Augienses and Annales Colonienses stress that the hunger then drove Christians to eat Christians, as if to stress the severity of the shortage, and the Richeri gesta Senoniensis ecclesiae observes that humans were forced to eat humans (C.1.242, 248, 249, 252). In the famine of the 860s, the Annales sanctae Columbae Senonensis alsodocuments ‘men and women’ killing each other for food and a man in Pont-sur-Yonne who killed a woman, quartered her, preserved some of her flesh with salt and cooked the rest for himself and his sons (C.1.189). The Annales engolismenses too reports murdering for food in the same crisis (C.1.190), and the Annales Fuldenses tells us of a man on the verge of killing his son in the lesser shortage of 850 (C.1.149). [36]
  • 975年,巴黎饥荒期间出现了人相食。 [37]
  • 1030—1033泛欧饥荒期间,有大量人相食:盗匪在公路上劫杀旅人吃、旅人半夜被收留自己的住戶殺了吃掉、小孩子们被一两个苹果拐走當成食物吃掉,在市场上卖人肉的商贩被處死後掩埋的人肉再次被饥民挖出来吃等等的出現了人相食紀錄。[38]
  • 1069—1070年征服者威廉的焦土战术严重破坏了英国北部的农业,当地人口减少了75%,幸存者靠食人活下来。[39]一些现代学者认为这次北伐符合种族灭绝的定义[40][41]
  • 第一次十字军东征时期,因战乱饥荒,当地军民与十字军都有出现了人相食。如1098年冬季的迈阿赖努阿曼围城战。[42] 卡昂的拉多夫写道,“在迈阿赖努阿曼,我们的军队将成年的异教徒放入锅内煮;而儿童则被切碎后烤熟食用。”[43]同年的安条克围城战也有出现了人相食。有人[來源請求]认为后世传说的被十字军所不齿的食人的Tafurs同盟军并不存在,只是为了为十字军开罪而杜撰出来。
  • The Chronicon Scotorum’s entry for 1116AD notes that in the wake of an attack on Thomond by Toirdhealbach Ó Conchubhair ‘Gorta mor isin errach go recad an fer a mac & a ingin ar biadh & go n-ithdís na daoine cidh a chéle ann & na coin. Fasughadh Laigen uile (acht beg) & a sgaoiledh fo Eirinn ar gorta (Great famine in the spring so that a man would sell his son and his daughter for food and men would even eat one another, and dogs. All Leinster was almost emptied, and scattered throughout Ireland on account of the famine).’[44]
  • 1138年初苏格兰的大卫一世入侵英格兰时造成当地饥荒,出现了人相食。 [45]
  • 1241年蒙古入侵期间,匈牙利出现了母食其子。[47]
  • 西班牙卡斯蒂利亚法规《Siete Partidas》中的一项规定,这是由卡斯蒂利亚国王阿方索十世颁布的一系列罗马和日耳曼法律,并于1256年至1265年间制定。根据这项法令,封建义务优先于亲子义务:在城堡中为领主服务的父亲,如果缺少粮食,可以选择吃掉儿子而不需征得许可,而不是无许可就放弃这个位置。由此产生的父权的扩大为任何父亲犯下相同行为提供了类似的理由,即为了自己的生存而杀死和吞食儿子:“因此,如果这可以为上帝而做,那么也可以为自己而做"。[48]
  • 1279~1283年波西米亚因战争而土地抛荒,出现了母食其子的情况。[49]
  • 1305年,意大利蒙特费拉的男爵、Aleramici家族的乔万尼一世病死,其私人医生被怀疑下毒,在葬礼上被男爵的家臣刺死并分食其肉以儆效尤。[50]
  • 1311年,神圣罗马帝国军队围攻阿尔卑斯山南麓意大利的布雷西亚城时,布雷西亚市民靠食用帝国军队的尸体坚持守城。为了报复,帝国军队俘获了布雷西亚的领导者Tebaldo Brusado,在城外游街后斩首并分尸。憤怒的布雷西亚市民抓住皇帝的侄子並且吃掉了。 [51]
  • 1315年-1317年的泛欧饥荒中,因缺少储粮,受灾荒的欧洲各国都出现了出现了人相食,有大量婴幼儿和成人被吃掉[52][53][54]。食人现象至少出现在了英国、波兰、西里西亚、利沃尼亚[55]以及食物短缺因战争而加重的爱尔兰[56]。其中布里斯托市政编年史中提到有母食子夫食子人,狱友互相生吞活剝的惨状[57]
  • War-torn Scotland in 1341AD when ‘the starving sufferers were compelled to feed on substances most abhorrent to human appetite; and one wretch called Christian Cleik, with his wife, subsisted on the flesh of children whom they caught in traps and devoured. These wretched cannibals were detected, condemned, and burned to death’.[58]
  • In the twenty-third chapter of the ninth book, however, Boccaccio glosses over a well-known episode of anthropophagy that occurred during the uprising that broke out in Florence on 26 July 1343 against Walter of Brienne, Duke of Athens, sent by the House of Anjou to support the military recapture of the city.20 The riot was incited by the Adimari, Medici, Donati and Ruccellai families. With Walter barricaded inside his palace, the insurgents asked for the ‘conservative’ (‘conservatore’)Guglielmo d’Ascesi and his son to be surrendered to them in exchange for ending the siege. Thrown into the ‘hands of the angry people’ the boy was killed and torn to pieces in front of his father, who soon suffered the same fate.21 Their shredded bodies were paraded around the city on spears and the most savage people ‘ate their raw and cooked flesh’.22 This episode of anthropophagy is described in the chronicles by Giovanni Villani, a contemporary of the narrated events, and Marchionne di Coppo Stefani, who lived a generation later and was partly inspired by the work of his predecessor. Useful information can also be found in the Storie Pistoresi (Pistoia Stories).23
  • 米凯勒·达·皮亚察(Michele da Piazza)的编年史叙述。我们来到1337年的杰拉奇(Geraci),这座城市被Ventimiglia家族和Chiaromonte家族争夺。由于与Palizzi家族的新争端,后者是Chiaromonte家族的盟友,并得到了新君主彼得罗二世的支持,弗朗切斯科·文蒂米利亚(Francesco Ventimiglia)被标记为叛徒,被围困在杰拉奇并被杀害 - 或者也许是在试图逃离愤怒的市民时发生的意外死亡。然后,杰拉奇的居民对他进行了虐待,割断他的手指,挖出他的眼睛,用石头击碎他的牙齿,用肉刀切割他的胡须,直到他被“从一部分分裂到另一部分”,并且,编年史家补充说,一些人“吃掉了他的肝脏”。[59]类似的事件在1368年发生在蒙特普尔恰诺。在被围困的城市内,詹姆斯·德尔·佩科拉(Giacomo del Pecora)。
  • 1358年法国北部扎克雷起义期间,有女贵族在被强暴后,被迫吃下被烤熟了的丈夫的肉。[62]
  • 1380年,法国南部的蒙彼利埃抗税暴乱中,法王派遣的官僚被暴民分尸并食用。[63]
  • 1385年9月3日,意大利北部的费拉拉发生抗税暴乱,男爵交出制定税收政策的Tommaso da Tortona以保证自己的安全,暴乱者在愤怒中将Tommaso的心脏和肝脏挖出并吃掉,尸体剩下部分悬挂在港口。[64]
  • Historian Piero Camporesi (1988) tells of violent aristocratic feuds in early-modern Italy. In one case, a victim’s disembowelled heart was bitten. In a second, the narrator tells us, ‘lucky was the man who might grind the entrails between his teeth’. In a third instance, a man was tortured and killed before being disembowelled. After gnawing his intestines, his attackers proceeded to ‘cut him up into small pieces to remove his fat because he was young, being probably twenty-eight years of age, tall and slim in build’. In Camporesi’s view, the emphasis on the victim’s youth and stature betrays an intention to sell this fat to ‘pharmacologist-doctors’ who would find it ‘beneficial to all nervous ailments’. Given the trade in cannibalistic medicine, the inference looks all too plausible.[65]
  • 1437年,意大利中部佩鲁贾地区Acquapendente村的一个父亲将误杀了自己儿子的牧童杀死,烹煮其肝脏宴请其父后告知是他孩子的肉,引发了两个家族之间的戰爭,一个月内死了36位男男女女。[66]
  • 1438年英法百年战争最后阶段时,有编年史作者记载阿布维尔地区一名饥饿的农妇們将自己的孩子杀死后肢解并用盐腌制,以备下次饥荒[67][68]
  • Fioravanti heard a story that seemed to corroborate this view. An old Neapolitan called Pasquale Gibilotti told him that his father, who had been a sutler in the army of King Alfonso of Naples during the war between the Angevins and Aragon in 1456, related a similar occurance that happened during that earlier war. According to Gibilotti, because of the want of provisions, especially of meat, "sutlers on both sides at night secretly took the flesh from dead bodies, and of these they made all sorts of dishes, which they sold to the unfortunate soldiers. This lasted for a long time without ever being discovered, and because of this the country was infected with that disease." [69]
  • 1476年,米兰贵族Galeazzo Maria Sforza被暴民私刑处死并分尸,部分肢体被吃掉。[70]
  • 1494年,法军入侵意大利,在围困那不勒斯城期间,有商人将人肉卖给法军。[71]
  • 亚历山大·索尼·宾恩(Alexander "Sawney" Bean)是苏格兰13~16世纪期间一个拥有48名成员家族的首领,传说其性格粗暴懒散,成年后与一名据说会巫术的女子一起在海边的一个洞穴居住,两人一起生育很多子女,子女又之间近亲乱伦,形成一个庞大的家族。整个家族依靠抢劫过往旅人、并食用被害人的尸体为生。后来因一次抢劫失败被发现,整个家族被逮捕处死。参见索尼·宾恩词条。

宗教改革时期食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • In 1512 during the War of Combrai Coalition, chronicler Lapini recorded an example of the ‘endless cruelties’ that he had heard in relation to the sack of Ravenna: a poor father had confined to a cave his five unmarried daughters. Unfortunately, he died along with all those who had notice of them so that the daughters could not get out by any way and also perished. When they were found, Lapini wrote, it was discovered that they had eaten each other’s arms in desperation.
  • 1514年7月21日,反抗马扎尔人统治的特兰西瓦尼亚雇佣兵首领György Dózsa被俘后受到酷刑,行刑者割下他的肉后将他的肉分给士兵、平民以及叛军的其他战俘,拒绝食用的人也被杀害食用[72]
  • 1521年,法国的Pierre Burgot和Michel Verdun因谋杀以及狼化妄想症(lycanthropy)被处死前,招供说他们在和女巫团体签订契约后变身为狼人,杀死并食用了六个婴儿。[73]
  • At the sack of Rome, some were reportedly forced to consume their own genitals.[74]
  • 1570年代俄罗斯在利沃尼亚战争期间,国内土地抛荒无人耕种造成饥荒,其中有不少食人的記載[75]
  • 1572年圣巴托洛缪日大屠杀后,曾在巴西调查当地食人族的Jean de Lery痛心疾首地控诉新教徒殉难者的肉在市场上被贩卖。[76][77]De Lery认为发生在法国的食人性质更加恶劣,因为巴西人好歹是吃敌对部落,而法国是邻居甚至家人出于教派区别互相仇杀食用。[78]同期在新教徒控制的朗格多克,愤怒的新教徒将供奉在Lodeve大教堂的11世纪时殉教的天主教圣徒Fulcran的圣体用火枪打得稀烂后,把剩下部分在一次正式的宴会上吃掉了。[79]
  • 1573年1月18日,法国"多勒的狼人"Gilles Garnier(英语:Gilles Garnier)因掐死四个儿童且食用他们的尸体的罪名被烧死。[80]
  • 1573年法国宗教战争期间天主教军队围困胡格诺派的桑塞尔城时造成了城内饥荒,当老鼠和皮革都吃完了之后出现了食人现象,桑塞尔在居民人口仅剩下战前20%时投降。[81]
  • Frank Lestringant (1997) tells how, around 1580, a French Protestant was killed and eviscerated by Catholics. His heart was next ‘chopped in pieces, auctioned off, cooked on a grill and finally eaten with much enjoyment’.[82]
  • 1581年9月16日,德国连环杀手彼得·尼尔斯与其同伙因杀死並食用544人,其中包括为了黑魔法仪式而从剖开孕妇肚子后取出吃掉的数十个胎儿,被处以轮刑[83][84]
  • 1585年那不勒斯一次暴动期间,有受害者在清洗内脏后被分尸挂在武器尖上,部分尸块被暴动者生吃。[85]
  • The English ambassador in France recounted the crisis in 1586: Here have been with the King two deputies, one from Xaintonge and the other of Pe´rigord, who, upon their knees have humbly desired the King to make a peace and to have pity upon his poor people, whose want was such as they were forced to eat bread made of ardoise and of nut-shells, which they brought and showed to the King. They told him also that the famine was so great as a woman in Pe´rigord had already eaten two of her children and the like had been done in Xaintonge ... Many thousand there [are] already dead for hunger, and, in that extremity ... that they feed upon grass ... like horses and die with grass in their mouths.[86]
  • 1589年10月31日,贝德堡的“狼人”彼得·斯顿普被控食人和巫术,在科隆被斩首。[87]
  • 1590年代泛欧饥荒期间,据说在匈牙利出现了母食其子的情况。[89]
  • An unidentified man (his name may have been Nicolas Damont) was burned at the stake in 1598 for the murders of 50 children in the French town of Châlons-en-Champagne after their remains were found in his home, including several partially-eaten cuts of human flesh. He admitted to having abducted, killed and eaten his victims during psychotic episodes but denied accusations by authorities that he had done so while transformed into a werewolf.[90]
  • Fynes Morison wrote of war-induced famine in County Down towards the end of the Nine Years War (1592~1602): Captain Trevor and many honest gentlemen lying in the Newry can witness, that some old women of those parts used to make a fire in the fields, and divers little children driving out the cattle in cold mornings, and coming thither to warm them, were by them surprised, killed and eaten, which at last was discovered by a great girl breaking from them by strength of her body, and Captain Trevor sending out soldiers to know the truth, they found the children’s skulls and bones, and apprehended the old women, who were executed for the fact.[91]In a reversal of the ‘hags’ motif, Moryson also wrote of ‘a most horrible Spectacle of three Children (whereof the eldest was not above ten Years old,) all eating and gnawing with their Teeth the Entrails of their dead Mother, upon whose Flesh they had fed 20 Days past’. [92]
  • 1603年,一个叫Jean Grenier的法国年轻人自称变成狼人时吃掉了50个在Saint-Sever地区失踪的儿童。他被判狼人罪(lucanthropy)但因为年龄而仅承受了无期徒刑。[93]
  • 1610年,终结了内战的法王亨利四世遇刺,凶手François Ravaillac被五马分尸处死后,尸首被怀念亨利四世的民众啖食。[94]
  • 波兰-立陶宛军队趁俄罗斯混乱时期入侵,1612年俄罗斯人反攻,将波兰立陶宛军队围困在克里姆林宫期内,期间缺粮的军队靠互食人肉生存[95]
  • 1617年法国权臣Concino Concini被意欲亲政的路易十三派人刺杀,其尸体部分被吃掉。[96]
  • 三十年战争期间,Die Hungersnot war 1634/35 so groß, dass die Menschen nicht davor zurückschreckten, ihre toten Angehörigen zu verspeisen. Dem Bericht des katholischen Pfarrers Michael Lebhardt aus dem Dorf Agawang (Nähe Augsburg) zufolge handelte es sich bei der Anthropophagie nicht um eine Metapher, sondern um eine reale, der Verzweiflung entsprungene Überlebenspraxis, die als «Notkannibalismus» bezeichnet wurde (S 173). 另,莱茵河畔布赖萨镇于1638年被围困时,近郊方济嘉布遣会的修道院出现了人相食。同年法军在黎塞留命令下围攻德法边境的多勒时,城内亦出现了人相食。[97]同年被瑞典军队围困在Tangermund地区的神圣罗马帝国军队也出现了人相食。[98]
  • 1627~1628年法国胡格诺派叛乱期间,黎塞留率领的天主教军队将胡格诺派据守的拉罗歇尔城围困长达13个月,有目击证人看到父母吃了自己孩子,守军分兵看守坟场以防逝者尸体被挖出来吃掉。[99]
  • 1635年发生于南法Agen的船工暴乱中,据称也有人被吃掉。[100]
  • Nor was the discourse purely a colonialist one. Tarlach Ó Mealláin, a Franciscan friar, kept a cín lae (diary) while on the run during the early stages of the Confederate Wars in Ulster in 1643. This was a time of widespread famine where reports of cannibalism had occurred.[101]
  • There is a claim that people also resorted to cannibalism in 1652-53 Ireland, again a time of severe famine.[102]
  • In April 1655 the Protestants of the Piedmontese valleys were massacred by Catholic troops. At first glance, reports of associated atrocities can appear mythical. Yet these stories were substantiated by a high-ranking French soldier, Monsieur du Petit Bourg. We hear of soldiers eating boiled human brains; tricking their comrades into consuming ‘tripe’ (in fact the breasts l and genitals of one of the Protestant victims); and roasting a young girl alive on a pike. In this latter case, the flesh proved too poorly roasted to eat. But the soldiers who killed ‘Daniel Cardon of Roccappiata’ readily ate his brains, after ‘frying them in a pan’; and having taken out his heart, would have fried this also, had they not been ‘frighted by some of the poor peoples’ troops . . . coming that way’.[104]

欧洲海船以及殖民地食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • In 1563 French settlers from Charlesfort-Santa Elena Site are reported to have resorted to cannibalism while fleeing back to Europe.
  • 西班牙探险家阿尔瓦·努涅斯·卡韦萨·德·巴卡在一次航海中,遭到沉船事故,幸存船员分食死去船员的遗骸。[105]
  • 1609年在英属北美最早的殖民地詹姆斯镇的早期岁月,有考古证据证明粮食短缺出现了人相食 。[106][107][108]
  • A party of Cossacks under Vassili Poyarkov cannibalized the corpses of Siberian aborigines they had previously killed.[109]
  • 英格兰女海盗船长夏洛特·德·贝里也食人,她在几次海难中都是通过分食同伴的屍體活下來。[110]
  • 1727年,英国皇家海军军官威廉·柏伊斯William Boys年轻时在南海公司的贩奴船卢克斯堡号工作时,船只在大西洋中部失火并沉没,和另外六个船员吃掉其他人活下来。[111][112]
  • In 1816, the French frigate Méduse ran aground off Mauritania, and 147 passengers and crew took to sea on a hastily constructed raft. In the chaotic 13 days before they were rescued, the occupants of the raft were driven to suicide, murder, and cannibalism; only 15 men survived the experience, five of whom died soon afterwards.
  • 约翰·富蘭克林於1818年首次進入北極地區,1819年至1822年間,富蘭克林帶領共20人的隊伍在加拿大西北地區沿科珀曼河進行陸上探險,因糧食不足,11人中途喪生,死於飢餓和冻伤,生還者靠地衣、樹皮維生和皮靴充飢,并开始分食罹难同伴。[113]
  • The Essex was sunk by a sperm whale in the Pacific Ocean, in 1820. Most survivors of Captain Pollard's ship spent 90 days in small whaling boats before being rescued. Seven of the members who died during the 90 days were documented to have been eaten, some after they died, two others who were sacrificed for that purpose after drawing lots. One of the small boats was found containing two survivors sucking on the marrow of a human bone. The tale of the Essex inspired Herman Melville to write his novel, Moby-Dick (1851).
  • In 1822, Alexander Pearce, an Irish convict, led an escape from Macquarie Harbour Penal Settlement in Van Diemen's Land. Pearce was captured near Hobart and confessed that he and the other escapees had successively killed and cannibalised members of their group over a period of weeks, he being the last survivor.[114]
  • 1826年5月4日,英国杀人犯托马斯·杰弗里斯因杀人並且食人,在塔斯马尼亚被绞刑处决。[115][116]
  • The May 27, 1826 issue of The Acadian Recorder reported that the surviving crew of the ship Francis Mary resorted to cannibalism.[117]
  • In 1837, a British cruiser captured the Portuguese schooner Arrogante, which had tried to bring several hundred West African slaves to Cuba, circumventing the British blockade. More than 60 Africans had died of hunger and diseases during the crossing, and the rest was severely undernourished. Many of the survivors reported "that one of the Africans on board the Arrogante had been murdered, and that, subsequently, the sailors had cooked pieces of his body and served them with rice to the rest of the Africans."[51] Half a dozen witnesses had seen "how the Portuguese sailors took Mina behind a sail that they had put up across the deck to stop the rest of the Africans from witnessing what was about to happen." One "who had peeped through the holes in the sail ... described how they cut Mina's throat 'with a long knife'".[52] Several enslaved girls saw how "the flesh of Mina had been cut into small pieces and ... cooked in the big pot destined for the Africans." One of them added "that the sailors had also cooked the liver and heart of Mina in their own smaller pot, and then had eaten those parts themselves", and another witness confirmed this observation.[118]
  • In November 1874, three British sailors survived by committing cannibalism acts in the aftermath of the Cospatrick disaster.[119]
  • Another, less well-known instance of cannibalism at sea concerned the mainly Irish crew of the barque Maria of Belfast, dismasted in rough seas off the coast of west Africa in December 1876. The sole survivor, twenty year-old James McLinden of Kilkeel, explained how the last to die had attempted to survive on the bodies of comrades who predeceased them.[120]
  • 1884年7月5日,英国船只木犀草号(Mignonette)在南大西洋遇难,四名生还的船员中的两人为了生存杀死并感激食用了另一名船员,英国政府认为应该将两人依谋杀罪起诉,两人被法院判处绞刑,基于当时的民意女王特赦了两人,将死刑改为监禁半年並建立了“紧急避难不能合理化谋杀行径”的法律论述。见女王诉杜德利与斯蒂芬案
  • In the 1890s, five or six young slave women and girls were butchered for a cannibal feast held in honor of the French count Rodolphe Festetics de Tolna and his crew on occasion of their visit to Malaita, one of the Solomon Islands. The count took their photo shortly before they were killed. He does not say whether he ate any of their flesh, but admits to having eaten human flesh on one or two other occasions.[121][122]
  • A report dated to July 28, 1892, indicates that three people were convicted on charges of cannibalism in the Sakhalin penal colony. Two songs referencing cannibalism were also recorded among the residents of the colony.[123]

近代欧洲本土食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 1648~1666年波兰遭瑞典、俄罗斯和乌克兰哥萨克入侵的洪水时期,曾经是王室最富庶领地的Żuławach在猫和狗被吃掉后据称出现了食人情况。[124]
  • Melchior Hedloff, or the "Melcher Shooter". Highwayman and alleged cannibal who was known for killing his victims with a rifle and then mutilating the corpses with a Turkish saber. Captured 1653 and executed in 1654 after confessing to 251 murders.[125][126]
  • 1695~1697芬兰饥荒期间出现了人相食。[130]
  • 1707年,不满10岁且有智力障碍的苏格兰贵族詹姆斯·道格拉斯,昆士伯里第三侯爵继承人杀死了家仆并烤食,因为未成年而免去刑罚[131][132]
  • French showman and soldier Tarrare had reportedly engaged in cannibalism.
  • Polish soldier Charles Domery ate pieces of a fellow crew member's severed leg.
  • 1808年拿破仑战争期间,法军在西班牙的拜伦战役战败后,7,000名战俘被西班牙转移至无人居住的卡布雷拉岛,由于西班牙政府在战场上无法及时供应自己的军队粮食,更是无法妥善照顾囚犯。在补给船未能抵达时发生了食人事件,最终存活并返回法国的不到一半[133]
  • 1812年,拿破仑从俄罗斯撤离期间,军队中出现了同类相食和啃咬自己身体的现象。从征的波兰贵族军官Roman Sołtyk说自己曾用6法郎购买一碗用士兵的肉和肾脏做的汤。[134]法国贵族回忆说在木屋中烧死的士兵的尸体也被吃掉了[135]中队队长Eugène Labaume回忆在极寒之下,有士兵把自己的手臂切下来烤来吃。[136][137]
  • A French woman named Aimée Debully was raped and murdered by Antoine Léger in 1824. Léger then ate Debully's heart and performed acts of necrophilia on the body.[138][139]
  • The May 27, 1826 issue of The Acadian Recorder reported that the surviving crew of the ship Francis Mary resorted to cannibalism.[140]
  • In 1837, a British cruiser captured the Portuguese schooner Arrogante, which had tried to bring several hundred West African slaves to Cuba, circumventing the British blockade. More than 60 Africans had died of hunger and diseases during the crossing, and the rest was severely undernourished. Many of the survivors reported "that one of the Africans on board the Arrogante had been murdered, and that, subsequently, the sailors had cooked pieces of his body and served them with rice to the rest of the Africans."[141] Half a dozen witnesses had seen "how the Portuguese sailors took Mina behind a sail that they had put up across the deck to stop the rest of the Africans from witnessing what was about to happen." One "who had peeped through the holes in the sail ... described how they cut Mina's throat 'with a long knife'".[142] Several enslaved girls saw how "the flesh of Mina had been cut into small pieces and ... cooked in the big pot destined for the Africans." One of them added "that the sailors had also cooked the liver and heart of Mina in their own smaller pot, and then had eaten those parts themselves", and another witness confirmed this observation.[143]
The British colonial authorities in Jamaica decided not to press charges against any of the Portuguese sailors, mostly based on the argument that they considered the ship's captain – who was known to have directed at least six slave voyages – too "inoffensive" to be capable "of such a horrible transaction".[144] Observing that this was not the only case where accusations of "White cannibalism" by Black victims of the slave trade were dismissed, the author of the paper investigating the case concludes that, "sheltered by distance, isolation, and lawlessness while at sea, other similar instances may have indeed taken place between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries."[145]
  • 1847年奥地利帝国治下的加利西亚地区饥荒亦出现了人相食。[148]
  • Clergyman Sabine Baring-Gould, in his 1865 book The Book of Were-Wolves, Being an Account of a Terrible Superstition, recorded an 1849 case in which a vagrant named Swiatek was arrested in the Galician village of Połomia for murdering a 14-year-old girl and eating parts of her body. Swiatek also admitted to having killed and eaten five other people since 1846, although evidence was found of up to 14 victims. He claimed that he had developed a taste for human flesh three years previously after hunger obliged him to eat the body of a man killed in a tavern fire.[149]
  • 1888年的连环杀手开膛手杰克也有食人[150][151]。During October 1888, during the investigation of the Whitechapel murders, George Lusk received a letter alongside half a preserved human kidney. The letter's writer claimed to be serial killer Jack the Ripper, and claimed to have fried and eaten the other half of the kidney.
  • Seven-year-old Bernardo Gonzalez Parra was kidnapped and murdered by Francisco Leona and several others in June 1910, and his blood drunk by a man named Ortega as a folk cure for tuberculosis.[152]
  • 卡尔·登克是一名普鲁士连环杀手和食人者,他从1903年至1924年间杀死并食用了数十名无家可归的流浪者和旅行者。他经常被视为“被遗忘的食人族”或“津比采的食人族”。在1924年12月21日作案失误被捕后,于次日在厨房中上吊自杀,警方未能讯问。[153][154][155]

两次世界大战间食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 在德国,Fritz Haarmann(也被称作“汉诺威的屠夫”)于1918年至1924年性侵并谋杀了至少24名男孩,大多为青少年。他经常在黑市出售无骨碎肉并对肉的来源给出不同甚至自相矛盾的解释。关于这是他处理受害者遗体方式的怀疑从来没有得到过证实,但也未被证伪。[156][157]
  • 1921年-1922年俄罗斯大饥荒,粮食不足出现了人相食。[158]
  • 1941-1944年列宁格勒围城期间出现了人相食。[159]1943年1月和2月,德国士兵在斯大林格勒战役投降后,大约10万名德国士兵被俘虏。几乎所有这些人都被送往西伯利亚或中亚的战俘营,在那里,由于吃不饱,许多军官与战俘开始出现了人相食。[160]
  • 雅典被轴心国占领期间,在1941~1942年间的食物短缺期间可能发生了食人。[161]
  • 1943-1945年在贝尔根-贝尔森集中营发生的食人行为加重了大屠杀的恐怖氛围。[162]

战后食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 1946~1947年,战后刚刚移交给苏联的摩尔多瓦因管理不善发生了饥荒,尸体被大规模食用,甚至出现了以食用为目的的谋杀。[165]
  • German serial killer Joachim Kroll, nicknamed "Duisburg Man-Eater", practised cannibalism from the mid-1950s until his arrest more than 20 years later.[166]
  • In summer of 1963, Josef Kulík from Czechoslovakia (at that time serving compulsory military service) killed two young boys in a railway wagon. He cut their bodies open, roasted some of their internal organs on a fire, and ate them. He used some old funeral wreaths he had found near the wagon for fuel.[來源請求]
  • From 1979 to 1980, Nikolai Dzhumagaliev killed at least seven women and cannibalized their corpses.[167]
  • 1981年,捷克斯洛伐克连环杀手Ladislav Hojer招供层杀死一名女子并割下其乳房和阴部,并将后者用盐水煮过后配上芥末食用。他表示因为味道太underwhelming,扔掉了一部分。[168]
  • 1982年3月5日,爱沙尼亚的Johannes-Andreas Hanni英语Johannes-Andreas Hanni杀死了一名海员Eimar Vibo,将其大腿肉割下带回家,当着妻子的面烧烤后“很高兴地”吃掉了[169]。年内和妻子又杀害了另外2人,在袭击第四名受害者时被苏联当局逮捕,年底在狱中上吊自杀。
  • Andrei Chikatilo, a serial killer born in Ukraine, experienced killing and cannibalism as paraphilia. He was convicted for murder in 1992 and subsequently executed.[170][171]
  • Ilshat Kuzikov, of St. Petersburg, Russia, was convicted in March 1997 of eating three male acquaintances since 1992.[172]
  • Between 1997 and 1998, Mikhail Malyshev murdered at least two acquaintances and cannibalized their remains at his apartment in Perm, Russia. He was sentenced to 25 years imprisonment with two years time served for these murders and multiple counts of animal cruelty, and was released in October 2022 after serving out his sentence in full.[173]
  • 1998年11月21日,芬兰的撒旦教教徒Jarno Elg杀害了另一名教徒并食用了其身体的部分,被判终身监禁。
  • 2001年圣诞节,德国埃森的电脑技术人员阿明·迈韦斯在互联网联系上一名自愿者Bernd Jürgen Brandes一起安排计划吃掉他。一开始他们没有想死但后来决定杀了他。[174]迈韦斯于2005年5月9日被判终身监禁。
  • In July 2002, four Ukrainians were arrested in Kyiv for killing and eating a teenage girl. They were suspected of killing at least 6 people. Evidence showed that the murders may have been influenced by satanism.[175]
  • On January 5, 2007, French authorities reported that a prison inmate committed cannibalism on a cellmate, in the city of Rouen.[176]
  • On January 13, 2007, Marco Evaristti hosted a dinner party where the main course was agnolotti pasta that was topped with a meatball made from his own fat, removed earlier in the year in a liposuction operation.[177]
  • 2008年,英国前模特安东尼·莫利Anthony Morley杀死并吃掉杂志编辑男友Oldfield的腿。[178][179][180]
  • In April 2009, two men from the city of Perm, Russia, killed and ate their brother.[181]
  • On November 14, 2009, three homeless men in Perm, Russia were arrested for killing and eating the parts of a 25-year-old male victim. The remaining body parts were then sold to a local pie and kebab house.[182]
  • Between 2009 and 2011, a Berlinskoe, Russia resident and serial killer Alexander Bychkov engaged in numerous acts of cannibalism, targeting people he had previously lured into his house.[183]
  • In April and May 2010, PhD student Stephen Griffiths from Bradford, England killed and ate three prostitutes, becoming known as the Crossbow Cannibal.[184]
  • In November 2010, Isakin Jonsson killed and decapitated his girlfriend in Skara, Sweden. With a knife, saw and ax, he separated her head from the body. He also cut off pieces of flesh from one of her arms and legs, which he carried into the kitchen to cook. He prepared them with salt and home grown cannabis leaves, and ate them. He also carried her head over to the kitchen counter and processed it with an ax and knife, possibly to eat it. Jonsson was convicted of murder and sentenced to forensic psychiatric care.
  • On July 9, 2011, a model in the St. Petersburg region of Russia drowned her colleague and consumed parts of her corpse. She was later detained, found guilty of murder, and sent to a psychiatric hospital for treatment, where she was diagnosed with schizophrenia.[185]
  • In August 2011, police found the body parts of various victims in serial killer Matej Čurko's refrigerator, including those of two Slovak women who disappeared in 2010.[186]
  • In July 2013, the Italian cannibal Lino Renzi, aged 45, was discovered by the police whilst he was cooking some remains of his mother, Maria Pia Guariglia, aged 73, in his apartment. The police had been called by a neighbour after smelling a disgusting odor coming from Renzi's apartment, possibly caused by some intestine chunks burning on the grill. Several pieces of human body were also discovered in a freezer, oven and pots, while most of the corpse, lying in the bathroom, featured severe mutilation to arms and legs, with several intestine pieces removed. Later on, Renzi confessed that his mother had not died of natural causes, but she had been brutally beaten to death by him after a quarrel, then dismembered into pieces with a saw and a butcher knife.[187]
  • On November 6, 2014, Matthew Williams, 34, was allegedly found eating his 22-year-old victim's face in a room of the Sirhowy Arms Hotel in the village of Argoed, near Blackwood, South Wales, United Kingdom.[188]
  • 2017年9月,35岁的Dmitry Baksheev和42岁的Natalia Baksheeva在克拉斯诺达尔因陆续食用30個人類的嫌疑被捕[189]
  • 2018年3月,俄罗斯连环杀手Eduard Seleznev被逮捕,审讯中得知其曾杀死三人后,将尸体食用并液化骨头[190]
  • 2018年10月30日,哈尔科夫的一对父子因将一位退休警官斩首并食用其身体而被逮捕[191]
  • 2019年2月,马德里的Alberto Sánchez Gómez将自己的母亲杀死,切成块后除了自己吃也分给狗吃,他雖然自首后但还是被判十五年徒刑,還要向兄弟赔偿60,000欧元但是他赔不出来[192]
  • In May 2018, the Reddit user u/IncrediblyShinyShart[193] consumed his amputated foot with 10 of his friends. After an accident 2 years earlier, his foot would not heal, and the doctors suggested that he would be better if he amputated it. He subsequently asked his friends, "Remember how we always talked about how, if we ever had the chance to ethically eat human meat, would you do it?"[194]

文学作品食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 希臘神話故事裡,克罗诺斯受到母親蓋亞的慫恿,推翻了自己父親烏拉諾斯,父親預言他也將被自己的孩子推翻,於是他的子女一出生,就被他吃掉,他的其中一个妻子拉亞騙他吞下一顆石頭讓宙斯倖免。長大後的宙斯终于推翻以克羅諾斯為首的泰坦諸神。宙斯也有吃掉敌人行为[196]。另外,后来的阿卡迪亚国王Lycaon因杀死儿子并试图让宙斯的诸神食用,被罚变身成狼。[197]Harpalyce, a daughter of an Arcadian king Clymenus, raped by her father gave birth to a boy. To revenge her fate she served the boy to Clymenus.[198]
  • 索福克勒斯的戏剧《Tereus》残本中,色雷斯国王Tereus强奸了妻子Procne的姐妹Philomela并使她残疾,Procne发现后,将她自己和Tereus生的儿子Itys杀死后喂给Tereus吃[199]。Itys的尸体被斩首后切成小块下铜锅烹煮。 [200]
  • 1289年,原为教皇派的贵族Ugolino della Gherardesca被指控叛国而被捕,和几个儿子一起在地牢中饿死。因但丁在神曲中的艺术加工,被认为死前吃了儿子的肉。
  • 武功歌《Richard Coer de Lyon》中,描述狮心王理查在圣地征战期间染病,厨师为他准备了一个年轻的萨拉森人的肉,之后恢复健康。被部下告知是人肉后,满意笑称只要萨拉森人够吃,这次远征就不缺军粮了。攻下阿卡后,议和使节用煮过的萨拉森战俘头颅宴请萨拉丁[201]
  • Giovanni Boccaccio takes up the theme in the ninth novella of the fourth day of the Decameron, which has powerful traits in common with the Vida of William of Cabestany, although it is believed to derive from an earlier source which might have inspired both versions. Boccaccio tells of Guglielmo da Rossiglione, whose wife, Madonna Soremonda, betrays him with his dear friend Guglielmo Guardastagno. After the jealous husband discovers the affair, he kills Guardastagno and cooks his heart, serving it to the unfortunate woman who decides to end her life after learning the truth, at the end of the meal, about the macabre ingredients.6

文明人的食人焦虑和帝国的纾解策略——十八世纪初期英国文学中的食人书写 浙江大学人文学院世界文学与比较文学研究所 | 王晓雄

  • 1729年,英国作家乔纳森·斯威夫特鉴于爱尔兰人口过剩的情况,在A Modest Proposal一文中以讽刺口吻建议爱尔兰人将他们养不起的婴儿卖给英格兰人吃。[202]

传统医药食人[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

  • 希腊医学家盖仑认为人肉,特别是年轻人的肉,是嫩而甜的。 [203]
  • 中世纪时期的欧洲開始用从埃及进口的木乃伊研磨碾碎后入药[204],后来因为木乃伊供应不足,欧洲本土死刑犯的皮、肉、骨、血、脂肪和内脏也被用来仿制类似药物[205]。虽说18世纪启蒙时代期间已经被主流医学界反对,但迟至19世纪中期的维多利亚时代仍流传于民间药方中[206][207][208]
  • 意大利的Maremma地区一直有将人类或动物胎盘加入食物中,帮助产后母亲产奶的习俗[209][210]

參考來源[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

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  5. Mead, Simon; Whitfield, Jerome; Poulter, Mark; Shah, Paresh; Uphill, James; Campbell, Tracy; Al-Dujaily, Huda; Hummerich, Holger; Beck, Jon; Mein, Charles A.; Verzilli, Claudio; Whittaker, John; Alpers, Michael P.; Collinge, John. A Novel Protective Prion Protein Variant that Colocalizes with Kuru Exposure (PDF). New England Journal of Medicine. 2009, 361 (21): 2056–65. PMID 19923577. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0809716. 
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  14. Fernando Quesada Sanz. De guerreros a soldados. El ejército de Aníbal como un ejército cartaginés atípico (PDF). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (西班牙语). 
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  28. Burgess, The Chronicle of Hydatius,83
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  30. Eodem tempore tanta fames fuit per universum mundum, ut Dacius episcopus civitatis Mediolanesis relatione sua hoc evidenter narraverit, quod in partibus Liguriae mulieres filios suos comedissent penuria famis, quas retulit ex Ecclesiae suae fuisse familia. Liber Pontificalis. DUCHESNE, Louis. Le Liber Pontificalis, texte, introduction et commentaire, 2 vols.. Paris: E. Thorin, 1886-1892.
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  50. Montanari, Angelica Aurora. "What’s bubbling in the pot? The enemy’s torment." Cahiers de recherches médiévales et humanistes. Journal of medieval and humanistic studies 36 (2018): 339-356.: Gugliemo Ventura, De gestis civium Astensium et plurium aliorum (1260-1325), ed. C. Combetti, Torino, 1848, col. 747-748 (l. D1-6).
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  54. Lucas, Henry S. The great European Famine of 1315, 1316, 1317. Speculum. October 1930, 5 (4): 343–377. JSTOR 2848143. doi:10.2307/2848143. 
  55. 210. Curschmann, Hungersnöte, pp. 59–60; Lucas, “Great European Famine,” pp. 355–56. See also Diemar, Chroniken des Wigand Gerstenberg, p. 238(man ate man and dog ate dog), as cited in Jordan, William Chester. The great famine: Northern Europe in the early fourteenth century. Princeton University Press, 1997.
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  83. Examples of such pamphlets and ballads are listed in Weller (1872), for example item 481: Hock (1577) (in this pamphlet, the gang is said to have been responsible for 540 murders up to 1577), item 548: Müller, 1 (1582), item 566: Müller,2 (1582), item 570: Basel (1582), item 587: Strassburg (1583). It is only in the last one, according to Joy Wiltenburg, that the Devil makes an explicit pact with Niers and his accomplices, and promises them supernatural powers to be gained by the use of fetuses in black magic rituals.
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