Subject:華製新漢語及中文固有語/其他用詞/新實用文言入門

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保羅《新實用文言入門》摘抄[编辑源代码]

A New Practical Primer of Literary Chinese

Paul Rouzer
Harvard East Asian Monographs

《新實用文言入門》,是許多海外大學都在使用的文言文教材。其內容除了選自中國古籍的課文外,其他例句和練習多是作者根據古漢語的文法和詞彙自己推演出來的,這就為文言寫作提供了指導,也成為此書的特色之一。文言文脫胎於上古漢語,過去的桐城派就主張學習《左傳》、《史記》,講求雅潔,而嚴復先生更是說“實則精理微言,用漢以前字法句法,則為達易”。當然,完全的上古漢語並不能解決後世新詞語、新概念的問題,也和後人通行的文言表達習慣存在個別字、義上的出入。但學文言能大體以古為師,再加上科學探究了語言的客觀規律,總之是不會有大問題的。

  • 一單元一課

【知】To know, to understand; to know how to; knowledge.、

【命】1. To command; a command; 2. Fate; life span.、

【者】(助詞,A grammatical particle)

【不】Not、(不 always negates verbs or adjectives, so always expect a verb or adjective following it.)

【怨】To resent; resentment, grievance.(Characters with the heart radical are often verbs of emotion or thinking. 怨 usually describes the bitterness, sadness, and anger that result from being treated unfairly.)

【天】Sky, heavens; “Heaven.”(This character is often used in a generalized sense for the Powers That Be.)

【己】Oneself; self, ego(This character usually appears as the direct object of a verb (as in the text of this lesson) or as a possessive adjective (i.e., 不怨己命, “to not resent one's own fate").)

【人】1.Person, people, human beings; 2.Others, other people.(Antonym (meaning #2): 己)

【禍】Disaster, misfortune, bad luck、

【生】1.To be born, to arise from; to give birth to; to be alive; to raise; to grow; alive; life. 2.Master, Mister, [polite suffix](人生, “A person is born" (or “a person lives/is alive”); 怨生禍,“Resentment gives birth to disaster.” )

【於】(多功能介詞,A multipurpose preposition)(This is one of the most common characters in literary Chinese; another character,于 is often used interchangeably with it. Translate based on the context.)

【欲】To desire, to want, to want to; desires, wants.(In later literary Chinese, this character could also mark a future action (“about to"). For that reason, 欲生 would come to mean (for example) “wish to give birth" or “was about to give birth.")

【得】1.To get, to obtain; gain, profit. 2.To succeed in, to be able to (accompanies other verb).(Example of meaning #2: 得生, to succeed in being alive, "to succeed in being born." (Compare this to the vernacular English. “Did you get to go to the store yesterday?"))

【福】Good fortune, prosperity.(Antonym: 禍)

【自】1. Oneself; personally, naturally, spontaneously. 2. From (used to indicate movement away from).(In meaning #1, 自 is sometimes used to put special emphasis on the subject. For example, 自知 usually means “to know [something] oneself.” Contrast this with 知己, "to know oneself' .Writers are sometimes rather vague about using 自 and 己; context should be your guide. Meaning #2 (usually translated into English as the preposition “from”) is actually a kind of coverb.)

【禁】To control, to prohibit, to restrain.、

【聖】Sage, wise person, saint; sagely; wise.(In Confucianism, the word is applied to the greatest men, Confucius especially. In Buddhism, it can refer to the Buddha or to Bodhisattvas. )

【以】1. With, by means of. [coverb] 2. In order to. [conjunction]、

【心】Heart, mind, state of mind, attitude.、(In Chinese culture, the heart is the source of both emotions and thinking)

【導】To lead.、(This character could be interpreted as the verbal equivalent of 道, “road”, “path”— in other words, “to show [someone] the road.”)

【耳】1.Ear. 2."And that is all”; “and that is the end of it. ” [sentence completion particle](The second meaning is a "phonetic fusion" of the two characters 而已.)

【目】Eye; to look at, to glare at.、

【小】Little, petty, insignificant; to consider small, to scorn.(The expression 小人 (found frequently in Confucian writing, but in other places as well) refers to a person with mean, egotistical instincts who cares only about himself and his own comforts. )

【爲】1.To do, to make, to be, to become. 2.For the sake of, because of, on behalf of. 3.[Marks a passive sentence pattern](This character is one of the most common in literary Chinese.)

【善】1.Good, excellent, virtuous; good [thing]; excellent [thing]. 2.To be good or skilled at [something].(This character refers either to virtuous, moral behavior or to talent and skill.)

【報】1.To repay, to reward; repayment. 2.To avenge; revenge. 3.Report; to report.(Whereas generally referring to the idea of repayment, this character can imply either reward for good things or forms of revenge or vengeance. It often refers to heavenly justice.)

【德】1.Virtue, power. 2.Good deed; to do a good deed.(Although in most literary Chinese texts this character refers to the modern sense of "virtue," in early texts it sometimes implies inner (almost magical) power or charisma. Some scholars have argued that it is the power one possesses to make another obliged or grateful to oneself (and this in turn led to meaning #2). One of the names of the Laozi 老子 is Daodejing 道德經, ”Classic of the Way and Its Power.”)

【人欲耳】People want ears、

【天欲報聖人】Heaven wants to reward the wise person.、

【善人怨欲】The good person resents desire.、

【小人不知德】The petty person does not know/understand virtue、

【天知報聖人】Heaven knows how to reward the wise person.、

【不知】not know、ignorance、(Sometimes an adverb + verb can be taken together as a noun idea. )

【自禁】to control oneself、self-control、

【不善】evil、wickedness、

【知者】one who knows、

【怨者】one who resents、

【導者】one who leads、

【導人者】one who leads people、

【生耳者】one who grows ears、

【爲禍者】one who creates disaster、

【命者】one who does not command、

【聖人得目於天】 The wise person obtains eyes from Heaven、

【聖人導小人於禍】The wise person leads the petty person from disaster.、

【小人生於禍】The petty person arises from disaster.、

【知己者得報於天】The person who knows himself obtains reward from Heaven.、

【天以禍報爲不善者】Heaven repays with disaster the person who does evil.、(In this example, 報 is the main verb, and 爲不善者 is its object. 以 is the coverb, and 禍 is the object of the coverb.)

【聖人以德導小人】The wise person leads the petty person with virtue.、

【自禁者以德導欲】The person who restrains herself leads her desires with virtue.、

【小人導心以耳目】The petty person leads his heart with his ears and eyes.、

【知己者報人以善】It is with good that the one who knows herself rewards others.、

【小人報天以怨】It is with resentment that the petty person rewards Heaven.、

Character List【i. 不人以命善報天小己得德心怨於欲爲生目知禁禍福者耳聖自 (26) iii. 導 (1)】

  • 一單元二課

【君】1.Ruler, lord. 2.[Polite second person pronoun; compare Elizabethan English “My Lord”]、

【子】1. Son, child. 2. Master, [polite suffix, like 生] 3. You. [pronoun] 4. “Viscount” (a feudal title).、

【君子】Son of a lord; a gentleman, a superior man.、(From the time of the Analects—a text purporting to record the sayings of Confucius—this term increasingly came to refer to men of superior moral standards and intellect. Often used as an antonym to 小人.)

【有】1. To possess, to own, to have; possession. 2. Being, existence; to exist, to be [in a place or among a group].(The second group of meanings represents the existence of something within a group or at a location. For example: 有憂 could be translated simply as “there is worry"; 君子有 善人 could be translated as “among gentlemen there are virtuous men.”)

【終】To end, to die; ending; finally.(When meaning “to die," this word usually implies by natural causes, after a full life (e.g., 君得終, "the ruler succeeded in living out his natural life span").)

【身】Body, the self, oneself; personally, on one s own.(Sometimes it is difficult to tell with this character whether the author intends an emphasis on the physical body one possesses or whether he/she intends an abstract sense. Synonym ("oneself”):自.)

【終身】All one s life, to the end of one s life.、

【之】1. [A particle that connects nouns or noun clauses] 2. Him, her, it, them, [direct object pronoun] 3. To go.(This is easily the most common character in literary Chinese. It has three chief uses, all of which you should learn thoroughly. Beware! Meaning #3 is fairly common, but rare compared to the other two meanings.)

【憂】Worry, anxiety, concern; to worry [about].、

【而】But, and, then.(This word only connects two verbs. Its meaning is often very vague.)

【無】1. To not have; nonpossession. 2. Nonexistence, nothingness; to not exist. 3.”Don’t….” [negative imperative](This verb is the opposite of 有. Note that unlike, which is only an adverb and must precede a verb, 無(in meanings #1 and #2) is a verb in itself. Meaning #3 is actually a substitute for the "proper" negative imperative,毋.)

【一】One; first; once.(Literary Chinese usually does not make a distinction between ordinal and cardinal numbers. )

【朝】1. Morning, dawn 2. First day of the lunar month. 3. [Royal or imperial] court; to hold court, to go to court, to summon to court.、

【一朝】Right away, immediately, in a brief period of time.、

【患】Grief, misfortune, disaster; to suffer, to worry about [a crisis].(Note that the text is contrasting this more serious character with the milder 憂.)、

【順】To act in accordance with, to agree with, to obey; favorable.、

【道】1. Road, path; skill, method; philosophy; the right way to live 2. To speak, to say.(Although it gave its name to the Taoist (Daoist) religion and philosophy, all Chinese philosophies and religions use “the Way" to indicate the proper path in life.)

【行】1. To go, to walk; to act; to conduct [affairs]; to carry out [an action]; to circulate [information, currency, etc.]; to practice, to put into practice. 2. Behavior; conduct.(行 is one of the most common characters in literary Chinese, and it is used for many actions. Most importantly, the basic meaning “to go” extends to ideas of behavior and conduct.)

【循】To follow, to comply with.(This character is a near synonym for 順.)

【理】Principles; pattern, rationale; to straighten, to arrange, to put in order.(In much later Chinese philosophythe—Neo-Confucianism that began in the eleventh century—this character was used to represent the cosmic order and the pattern of things. In the early period, its meaning is somewhat more modest and can be anything from the stripes on a tiger to the right way to do something. It originally meant “to polish gems in accordance with their veins.")

【言】To speak, to say; words, speech.(When 言 takes an object, it usually is the topic of speech. For example: 人言禍, "People talk about disaster.")

【喜】To be happy, to be delighted; to enjoy [something]; joy, pleasure.(Do not confuse this character with 善.)

【加】1. To increase. 2. To participate [in], to be of benefit. 3. Increasingly, more. 4. To apply [to]. 5. Advantage, gain.(The adverbial usage ("increasingly, more") may seem a little odd. It functions as a way to express “comparatives” (-er adjectives in English). Examples: 君子不加小, “The gentleman does not become any smaller”; 小人不加聖, “The petty person does not become any wiser.")

【易】1. Easy; easily. 2. Change; to change, to exchange; the Book of Changes (a Chinese classic).(The first use is often in conjunction with another verb to express the idea “easy to…” For example: 易導, ”easy to lead"; 易行, "easy to carry out.")

【怒】Angry; anger.、

【難】1. Difficult, hard to deal with. 2. Difficulty, problem.(Meaning #1 is often used with a verb to express the idea “difficult to…” For example: 難導, “difficult to lead”; 難行, “difficult to carry out”)

【下】Under, below; to go down, to descend, to put down; social inferiors; to give to a social inferior.(This character can refer to anything “below” something else, or any movement from above to below.)

【天下】“Under Heaven” (i.e., the world).(Chinese writers tended to use this term to represent all territory under Chinese control, not necessarily every place in existence. The scholar A. C. Graham has rendered it as “the empire.")

【失】To lose, to be remiss, to neglect; loss, failure.、

【後】1. Behind, later, subsequently, afterward; to follow behind; to consider of lesser importance. 2. Posterity, successor, heir.(This character can generally refer to anything that is behind something else, or (verbally) a movement toward the rear or a dismissal of something as “secondary” or “less important.")

【而後】And then, only then.(This phrase emphasizes that a first event must happen before a second event can occur.)

【仁】Kindness, benevolence.(One of the most important Confucian virtues.)

【義】1. Righteousness, justice; righteous, just. 2. Principles, ethical principles; principled, upright. 3. Meaning, significance, main point.(In Confucian philosophy the first meaning is often linked with 仁; one represents the "softer," more compassionate side of virtue, the other one the “harder,” more upright side. The second meaning has the broader sense of moral standards or ideals (as in English, when we say "she is a principled person"). The third usage (which developed later than the others) has the vaguest meaning of all, and in this sense the character is sometimes used interchangeably with 意.)

【焉】1. [An object pronoun.] 2. How. [question word](In meaning #1 (by far the more common), this word generally represents a combination of 於 + object pronoun (e.g., “from him,” “to her,” “toward it,” etc.). Sometimes it's best to translate it as a location pronoun: here or there. In this text, "here" or "from this" would be most appropriate.)

【國】Country, state, capital city.(In ancient China, this character could apply to different concepts. Before the unification of China under the Qin 秦 empire (221-207 B.C.E.), independent states were called 國. However, at the earliest stage, the term could be applied to the “capital city” of a state (and, in fact, states in the early period were more like Greek city-states—metropolises with vaguely defined territory around them). In the imperial period ,國 could apply to territory controlled by a member of the royal house or a loyal retainer (“fiefdom”). Basically, all 國 taken together constitute 天下.)

【家】1. House, household, family. 2. School of thought.(In the early period, the term 國家 as a combination word meaning "country" had not quite evolved yet. Rather, 家 is contrasted with 國 to represent either the private realm (family, as opposed to country), or the noble families and clans that ruled the 國. The character itself represents a domestic animal under a roof.)

【治】1. To govern well, to put in order. 2. Government, administration.、

【孝】Filial; filiality, filial piety.(Another one of the most important Confucian virtues. 不孝 means "unfilial" or “unfiliality.”)

【民】The common people.(This character usually describes the people as a group; it is rare to see an individual called a 民, unless his commoner status is being stressed.)

【爭】1. To vie, to compete, to struggle, to fight. 2. To try one's hardest, to be eager to, to vie [with others to accomplish something].(The second use accompanies another verb and represents the eagerness of people to do something. For example: 民爭爲善, “The people struggle to/compete to do good” (i.e., they are all extremely eager to do good).)

【分】1. To divide up, to apportion,to share. 2. Share, lot, fate.(Note that the knife radical suggests the character's original meaning: cutting something into pieces and dividing it.)

【慈】Compassion, sympathy; compassionate.、

【惠】Compassion; compassionate.(慈惠 is an example of a synonym compound—two words with roughly the same meaning put together, sometimes for emphasis, sometimes to create a symmetrical rhythm. Up to this point in the lesson text, the expression 而後 has been followed by a two-character phrase: first 仁義, then 孝子. Although the author could express his meaning here with only the character 慈, the symmetry of the phrases forces him to insert a synonym. )

【逆】To go against [the right], to be perverse, to go awry.、

【時】Time, the times, the era.((之) 時 is often used to mark a temporal clause. For example, 聖人治天下之時,民爭爲善,“When a sagely person governs the world, then the people vie to do good.")

【反】1. To revolt; to go astray; to be perverse. 2. To return. 3. On the contrary, contrary to expectations.(In all meanings, the idea of a countermotion is implied by this character.)

【權】1. To weigh, to balance [physical objects]. 2. Circumstances, contingencies, temporary situation. 3. Influence, authority, power.、

【謀】Plans, schemes, strategy; to plot, to plan; resourceful.(This word can have either a positive connotation (to make strategies, to consult, to plan) or a negative one (to scheme, to plot). As a verb, it takes as its object either the thing that is being planned (聖人謀善, “The wise person plans a good thing”) or the thing that is being plotted against (小人謀國, “The petty person plotted against the state").)

【權謀】Grand strategies, provisional plans; resourcefulness.(This compound obviously derives from the idea of the plans 謀 one develops in certain circumstances 權.)

【君之謀】the ruler's schemes、

【天下之國】the states of the world、

【聖人之時】the era of a wise person、

【小人之家】the petty person's house、

【君子之後】behind the gentleman、

【謀國之君】the ruler who plots against the state(Longer descriptive phrases: You will probably have most difficulty with 之 when it connects a whole sentence to a noun. In literary Chinese, one does not say "the ruler who plots against the state.” One says “the plot-against-state ruler" 謀國之君.)

【爲善之家】a family that does good、

【爭得道之民】a people that vies to obtain the Way、

【逆善人之謀】a plot that goes against good people、

【以福報國之天】a Heaven that rewards a state with good fortune、

【小人逆道而反德】The petty person goes against the Way and opposes virtue.、

【聖人自禁而不禁人】The wise person controls him/herself but does not control others.、

【君行仁義而治國】The ruler practices kindness and justice and so governs the state.、

【君怒】the ruler is angry、

【子小】the son is small、

【聖人慈】the wise person is kind.、

【怒君】angry ruler、

【小子】small son、

【慈聖人】kind wise person.、

【國家不治】the state and family are not [well] governed、

PRACTICE【1. 謀惠之時;2. 反道之患;3. 以仁義導民之孝君;4. 知順君之善民;5. 孝子不失有義之家理。6. 天下順行德之君。7. 天下爭順行德之君。8. 天下爭順以仁義行德之君。9. 怒子不多口順君子之言。10. 民無行慈惠之謀。】

Character List【i. 下之仁分加反君喜國失子孝家後怒患惠憂易時有朝權民治焉無爭理終義而行言謀身道難順(40) ii. 循逆(2) iii. 慈(1)】

  • 一單元三課

【萬】Ten thousand.、

【物】Thing; physical object.、(萬物, "the ten thousand things,” is a common expression for all the things in the world.)

【其】1. This; that; these; those; its; his; her; their, [possessive and demonstrative adjective] 2. Perhaps, probably, should, [vague modal adverb] (This character is extremely common in literary Chinese constructions.)

【本】[Tree] root; fundamental; basics.(In Chinese philosophy, 本 is often used to express important things, first things, or the essential nature of things.)

【百】One hundred、

【事】1. Thing, matter, affair, occupation, job. 2. To serve, to work for; to employ, to have as a servant.(In modern Chinese, 物(72) tends to apply to physical objects, whereas 事 applies to matters, affairs, and abstract things. This holds true to a certain extent in literary Chinese, but there is some confusion of the terms. )

【成】To complete; to accomplish; to perfect; to become.、(This character is quite common in both transitive use (君成德, “The ruler perfects his virtue") and intransitive use (德成, "Virtue comes to perfection"). )

【所】1. Place, location. 2. [Grammatical particle: turns a verb into a direct object.]、

【在】To be located in [a place]; to be at [a place]; to exist, to be living.、

【歸】To go home; to give allegiance to; to find refuge with.、(This character expresses the action of going to where one “belongs” (in traditional conception). Rivers 歸 to the sea. Vassals 歸 to their lord. Women 歸 to their husbands' homes when they get married.)

【貴】Valuable, expensive; to value; to treasure.(In other, later texts, this character indicates members of the nobility and aristocracy.)

【愛】To love; to cherish; to begrudge.(This character usually does not imply “romantic love’’ in literary Chinese, as it does in the modern East Asian languages.)

【畏】To fear; to be in awe of; to respect.、

【屋】House, room.、

【漏】To leak、

【去】1. To leave, to abandon, [transitive] 2. To leave, to depart, [intransitive]、

【水】Water.、(Sometimes this character is used poetically for "river" (like “the waters of the Nile” in English).)

【淺】Shallow.、(As can the English word for this meaning, this character can be used literally (“shallow water”) or metaphorically (“shallow feelings”).)

【魚】Fish.、

【逃】To flee, to escape.、

【樹】1. Tree 2. To plant [a tree], to establish.、

【高】High, lofty.、

【鳥】Bird.、

【宿】1. To roost; to lodge, to spend the night; lodging, inn. 2. Previous, former.(As one might conclude from the usages above, the character can refer both to animals roosting for the night and to humans spending the night somewhere (often temporarily). From there, the meaning of "inn" or “lodging” developed.)

【厚】Thick; generous.、

【士】Knight; military officer; gentleman; gentry.(The meaning of this character changes depending on the historical period. At the time of this text, it often referred to a land-owning "middle class,” sometimes warriors, sometimes scholars. Many of these people were literate, and most of the literature and philosophy of the time was produced by them. Socially, they were located between the aristocrats and the rulers on the one side, and the common people on the other.)

【趨】To hurry; to hasten.、

【禮】Rites, ceremonies; politeness, etiquette, courtesy; polite, courteous.(Another very important term in Conflician thinking, although English translations often fail to convey this.)

【忠】Loyal, faithful; loyalty.、

【信】1. Trustworthy, sincere; to believe; faith, trustworthiness. 2. Truly, actually.、

【死】Death; to die

【其魚】 “this fish,” “that fish,” “the fish [we have been talking about]," “her fish,” “his fish,” “its fish,” or “their fish”、

【君(之)心】the ruler's mind、

【其心】his mind、

【我(之)心】my mind、

【子(之)心】your mind、

【君得民心而後得其信】The ruler obtains the people's hearts, and only then will he obtain their trust.、

【不信其君之民】a people who do not trust their ruler.、(However, if you want to put particular emphasis on such people—to see them as a special subgroup of peoples in general (the subgroup of those who don't trust their ruler), then you use a new pattern, characterized by : NOUN + 之 + VERBAL PHRASE + 者)

【民之不信其君者】a people who do not trust their ruler、those among the peoples who do not trust their ruler.

【小樹】small tree/trees、

【樹之小者】[those] trees that are small、

【人之逃禍者】[those] people who flee disaster、

【國之不循天者】[those] states that do not obey Heaven、

【鳥之不宿樹者】[those] birds that do not nest in trees、

【聖人之自禁者】[those] sages who control themselves、

PRACTICE【1. 人之不宿屋者;2. 君之怨患者;3. 士之不信天者;4. 樹之小者,其本不成。5. 士之不自愛者不憂命。6. 魚之不逃淺水者,人得之。7. 鳥之成家於高樹者,其屋漏。】

【愛者】one who loves、

【所愛】that which/what is loved、

【逃者】one who flees、

【所逃】that which/what is fled、

【成者】one who completes、

【所成】that which/what is completed、

【去者】one who abandons、

【所去】the place that is abandoned、

【歸者】one who returns、

【所歸】the place that is returned to、

【在者】one who is present/exists、

【所在】the place where [someone] is located、

【士(之)所愛】that which/what the knight loves、

【聖人(之)所逃】that which/what the wise person flees、

【魚(之)所成】that which/what the fish completes、

【鳥(之)所去】the place that the bird abandons、

【君(之)所歸】the place that the ruler returns to、

【道(之)所在】where the Way is located、

PRACTICE【1. 民之所貴;2. 魚所怨;3. 鳥所宿;4. 士不愛民之所愛。5. 君之所去,小人爭趨之。】

Character List【i. 事信其厚去在士宿屋忠愛成所本樹歸死水淺物畏百禮萬貴高魚鳥 (28) ii. 漏趨逃(3)】

  • 一單元四課

【齊】1. The state of Qi. 2. To be equal, to be the same.(Regarding meaning #1: 齊 was a state in pre-imperial China, occupying part of the area of Shandong 山東 province.)

【桓】Martial, military.(This is a relatively uncommon character, used most often in proper names and titles (as this case).)

【公】1. “Duke” (a feudal title). 2. Gong, [a surname] 3. Master. [polite suffix, similar to 生 and 子] 4. You, Sir. [polite second person pronoun, similar to 子]

【齊桓公】Duke Huan of Qi.、

【大】Great, large, important.、

【臣】1. Minister; subject [of a ruler]. 2. [First person pronoun when addressing a superior.](Pay special attention to the pronoun use. This is comparable to archaic English usages like "Your Humble Servant.")

【具】1. To prepare. 2. Utensil, tool 3.All, the whole, every, [adverb]、

【酒】1. Alcoholic beverage. 2. Banquet, [figurative usage](This character has usually been translated as “wine,” but you should keep in mind that alcoholic beverages at this time were probably brewed from grainsthat is,they were closer to beer. Fermented rice beverages (like Japanese sake) and strong distilled beverages were not made until much later.)

【期】1. To set an appointment, to choose a time, to set or determine. 2. To expect, to wait for.、

【日】Sun; day, daily.、

【中】1. Middle, midst. 2. To hit on target, to strike the middle of.

【日中】Noon (“middle of the day “).、

【管】Tube; pipe, flute、

【仲】The second in order of birth.、

【管仲】Guan Zhong.、

【至】1. To arrive. 2. To go so far as; to reach the point of. 3. When, when the time came that. 4. The ultimate, the most, the perfect.(This is an especially common character. In addition to its straightforward verbal usage, it has a number of more abstract uses. The second meaning can be used in expressions representing the extent to which an action may be carried out. For example: 報至死, “he took revenge to the extent of death"—he took revenge even to the extent that he risked death or killed his enemy. The third meaning can be used as a simple time marker. For example: 至行齊, “when he went to Qi....” The last meaning is used as an adverb to represent the superlative degree of some quality. For example: 至善, “the most perfect good," “the highest degree of good.")

【舉】1. To raise, to lift; to mobilize [troops]; to light [a fire]. 2. All, entire, every.、

【觴】Cup, goblet, drinking cup; to offer a toast.、

【飲】To drink(In this anecdote the character is causative: “to make drink.")

【半】Half.、

【棄】To abandon, to cast aside, to reject.、

【曰】1. To say, to speak. 2. To be named, to be called.(Do not confuse this character with 日 (110), which is thinner. This verb appears most commonly as an introducer of direct speech, but the second usage is common when introducing names.)

【可】To be feasible, to be allowable, to be permissible.(Although this character commonly appears by itself, it typically occurs with a verb as well.)

【乎】1. [Question particle: ends a sentence, indicating a question.] 2. [An exclamation particle, indicating surprise or emphasis.] 3. [A dialect substitution for the multipurpose preposition 於.]

【對】To reply, to answer.、

【聞】1. To hear. 2. To smell 3. Learning, fame, reputation (i.e., "what is heard”).(This is by far the most common verb for hearing. It is also commonly used (as in this case) to introduce a proverb or a common saying: “I have heard….”)

【入】To enter、

【舌】Tongue.、

【出】To go out, to come out, to emerge; to produce,to make come out.、

【計】To plan, to calculate; plans, calculations.、

【如】1. To resemble, to be like. 2. To go [to]. 3. If, supposing.

【不如】To be not as good as, to not come up to.、

【笑】To laugh; to smile.(Often, literary Chinese clarifies which meaning is meant by using 大笑 for “laugh” (which will appear in Lesson 6). As a transitive verb, 笑 means “to laugh at [someone/something].”)

【父】Father.、

【仲父】Uncle.、(Applied to a "middle" uncle (neither the oldest nor youngest). In this text, 齊桓公 uses it as a term of respect and affection to his minister, who was “like an uncle" to him. This usage implies that 管仲 was old enough to be his uncle, but not excessively old. It is probably coincidental that 管仲’s personal name was 仲.)

【起】To rise; to get up [from sleep].、

【就】1. To proceed to, to go to. 2. To carry out, to accomplish.、

【坐】1. To sit; seat, place [at a banquet or meeting]. 2. To try [someone] on criminal charges; to be brought to court [on a charge].(Until the Song 宋 dynasty (960-1279 C.E.) and the widespread use of chairs in China, the Chinese sat cross-legged on mats (as the Japanese often still do). This verb is used only for cross-legged sitting. Meaning #2 (encountered in Lesson 10) is relatively rare.)

【君爲民行德】The ruler practices virtue on behalf of the people.、

【子爲其父棄酒】The son gave up ale for the sake of his father.、

【臣爲公就坐】The minister proceeded to his seat for the sake of the duke.、

【桓公舉觴以飲之】Duke Huan raised his cup in order to drink from it、

【臣坐仲父】I provided a seat for my uncle [lit., "caused my uncle to sit"].、

【君行酒】The ruler passed around the ale [lit., “caused the ale to go"].、

【公趨其臣方令家】The duke hurried his minister off to his house.、

【臣出其計】The minister produced his plans.、

【對曰】replied, saying …、

【笑曰】laughed, saying…、

【愛君不如畏之】Loving the ruler is not as good as fearing him.、

【爲己得天下不如爲民治國】To obtain the world for oneself is not as good as governing the state for the sake of the people.、

PRACTICE【1. 臣欲棄不善以治民。可乎?2. 公終身行不孝以逆天下。3. 善士以禮具酒。4. 管仲曰:「公不知棄不善之臣乎?」5. 公對曰:「計棄不善之臣不如愛國民。」6. 之淺者不如樹之高者。7. 士之後至者不畏君之怒。8. 公坐臣而行酒。9. 飲酒而失言不如棄酒而禁言。10. 鳥爲己宿高樹,而魚爲其子去淺水。】

Character List【i. 中乎仲入公具出半可坐大如對就日曰期桓棄父笑管聞臣至舉計起酒飮齊 (31) ii. 舌觴 (2)】

  • 一單元五課

【曾】1. Zeng. [a surname] 2. Once in the past, [adverb tense marker]

【曾子】Master Zeng (one of Confucius’ disciples).(Note the meaning of 子 (29-2) when used as a suffix in polite designations.)

【衣】1. Clothes, robe. 2. To put on clothes, to wear clothes. (Note that each part of speech has a different tone.)

【弊】Worn out, tattered、

【耕】To plow.、

【魯】The state of Lu.、

【使】1. To send, to make, to cause. 2. To go on a mission; emissary, ambassador. 3. If, supposing.

【往】To go.、

【致】To present; to elicit; to make come; to bring about; to convey.、(This character has a wide range of meanings and may cause you some confusion. One way to interpret it is to see it as the “causative” equivalent of 至, “to arrive". Thus, “to present” a gift is to make it arrive at its destination; to elicit an emotion is to make it come; and so forth.)

【邑】District city; county; region.(Towns were often given as temporary fiefdoms to prominent ministers or even simply to men of virtue; the recipients could draw income from its tax revenues.)

【請】1. To request. 2. To pay a polite visit to.(This character produces some confusion because it can imply both a request for permission to do something and a request that someone else do something. For example:臣請往魯,“I [your humble minister] request to go to Lu"; 請君往魯, “I request that you, My Lord, go to Lu.” Sometimes only context will make clear how to interpret its use.)

【此】Here; this, these.(This character is very common and refers most often to a place, though sometimes to people or things.)

【修】To repair, to mend; to regulate; to cultivate.(Sometimes this character can have a very concrete, matter-of-fact usage, as in this lesson's text. However, in expressions such as 修身, “to cultivate the body/self,” it can refer to philosophical cultivation or yogic/ascetic practice. It turns up often in Buddhist writing.)

【受】To receive.、

【復】1. Again; moreover. 2. To return; to repay; to report.(This character occurs in a wide variety of contexts, and it usually implies repetition of some sort. As a verb, it represents reciprocation (to return something or to repay something, or to report on a situation, usually after returning from a mission— compare 報 [26]). As an adverb, 復 can be exceedingly vague, implying the repetition of the same action or merely the occurrence of a different action related to the first (in which case it is often left untranslated). It also occurs frequently with the negative, when it can cause some problems of interpretation: 復不往 would mean “again does not go” (i.e., someone has not come in two instances),whereas 不復往(which is much more common) means “does not again go" (i.e., does not go any more).)

【又】Again; moreover.(This character is frequently used as a synonym for 復. However, 又 often emphasizes irritation, disgust, or unexpected repetition. For example, with negatives, 又不往 means “again [he] didn't come!” (He stood us up again!) Perhaps because of the special emphasizing function of 又, 不又往 does not occur at all.)

【先】First, earlier; first; in front; to be first; to go first; to put first.(This character has much the same range of use as its opposite,後)

【先生】Master、(A polite form of address, somewhat more polite than 生 by itself, which can also be)

【非】1. "Is not, “ it is not the case that….” [negative particle] 2. Wrong.、

【求】To seek, to request, to look for.、

【則】Then、(This character is often optional and is used to clarify what might otherwise be an unclear relationship between clauses; it is typically found in both “Since… then…” and “If... then…” sentences. In our lesson text, it is used to emphasize that since 曾子 did not ask for anything, then the messenger can conclude that the town was freely given as a present.)

【獻】To present, to give, to offer (often to a superior).、

【奚】How, what, [question word]、

【奚為】Why. [question word](This term can be interpreted as an inversion of 爲奚, “on behalf of what?" with 爲 functioning as a coverb.)

【予】1. To give 2. I, me [first person pronoun 余]

【驕】Arrogant, proud, high-spirited; to treat someone arrogantly.、

【縱】Even if.、

【賜】To give [as a present]; gift.(This character is a close synonym to 獻(154); however, 獻 often represents a social inferior giving a present to a superior, while 賜 represents a superior granting something to an inferior. Note that 魯君 uses 獻 politely to describe his gift to 曾子, whereas 曾子 politely uses 賜 for the same gift.予(156), however, is relatively indifferent to social class.)

【我】I, me. [first person pronoun]、

【也】[Particle.](This character can place a special emphasis on a phrase. )

【能】To be able to, can; to be capable, to be able; ability, talent.、

【勿】Do not. [imperative]、

【孔】1. Hole; nostril.2. Kong, [a surname]、

【孔子】Master Kong (Confucius).(The Western version of the name actually derives from a latinization of Kongfuzi 孔夫子, an even more honorific title for the philosopher.)

【參】1. To counsel; to consult; to participate. 2. Shen. [a personal name](This character is a fairly common verb, and you should learn its meanings. However, in this case, the word (in its second pronunciation, shen) is simply the personal name of 曾子. Obviously Confucius would refer to his own student by his personal name, not by an honorific title.)

【足】1. To be sufficient, to be enough; to be competent at. 2. Foot.(This character is often used an auxiliary verb, in the expression 足以, “be sufficient to…”)

【全】Complete, preserved; to preserve, to complete.、

【節】Joint (originally, of bamboo); segment; virtue, chastity, self-restraint; virtuous, chaste.、

【公使我往齊】The duke sent me/made me to go to Qi.(In this sentence, 我 is the object of 使 and the subject of 齊.)

【君使其臣飲酒】The lord made his ministers drink ale.、

【其仲父使曾子往耕】His uncle made Zengzi go and plow.、

【齊公使我就坐】The Duke of Qi made me go to my seat.、

PRACTICE【1. 公使管仲報民以魚。2.. 曾子爲其君使其子往於魯。3. 仁義使我全民而得福。4. 孔子使我具酒。5. 孔子之言使我棄身以治國。】

【我不去我父】I am not abandoning my father.、

【我非去我父】It’s not that I'm abandoning my father…、

【子奚爲棄酒?於禮可乎?】 Why are you throwing away the ale? Is that in keeping with courtesy?、

【我非不禮,我不欲出舌。】It's not that I'm discourteous, [but] I don't want to speak rashly.、

PRACTICE【1 .公曰:「子驕孔子乎?」管仲對曰:「我非驕孔子,我不愛之。」2. 我非不愛我國,而我不倉旨貴君之謀。(Be careful with the double negative here!)3. 我非求不善之行,我不足以全我節。4. 我非棄君之賜,我不能飲酒。5. 我非不愛仁義,而不易行。】

【公賜孔子邑】The duke gave Confucius a town.、

【孔子言公德】Confucius spoke to the duke of virtue.、

【公賜邑焉】The duke gave a town to him/her/them.、

【公以邑賜我】The duke gave me a town [lit., “The duke by means of a town gave I me"].、

【孔子以德言我】ConfUcius spoke to me of virtue [lit., "Confucius by means of virtue spoke to me”].、

PRACTICE【1. 孔子賜我大魚。2. 管仲獻公善計。3. 曾子以孝忠言我。4. 父予其家於子。5. 君以觴賜管仲。】

【奚爲不受】"Why don't you accept?"

【縱君有賜,不我驕也】 "Even if the ruler has a gift and does not treat me arrogantly….”

PRACTICE【1. 我不之得。2. 我不之言。3. 君不我愛。4. 孔子不子全乎?5. 公不之舉。】

【我能不畏之乎】"Am I able to not be afraid of him?”、“Could I avoid fearing him?”、

【勿禁、毋之禁】Do not prohibit/control it!、

【勿反、毋之反】Do not go against him!、

【勿出、毋之出】Do not bring it out/do not let him go out!、

【君欲勿求 、君欲不之求】The lord did not want to look for him.、

【士能勿飮、士能不之飲】The knight was able to not drink it (avoid drinking it).、

Character List【i. 也予使修先則勿參又受孔往復我曾此求獻節縱耕能致衣請賜足邑非魯(30) ii. 全奚驕(3) iii. 弊(I)】

  • Review, Lesson 1-5

者【1. 知全生者得福於天。2. 順其本者不怨命。3. 以忠信成其節者不欲棄其君。】

於【1. 管仲受邑於公。2. 孔子予鳥於魯君。3. 仲父出於家。】

以【1. 鳥以樹爲屋。魚以水爲家。2. 善人以慈惠治國。3. 天報德以福。】

Displaced objects【1.有德之君,天報以福。2. 義君民畏之,仁君民愛之。3.君之謀我自知。】

Partitive structures【1. 君之治國者有全民之節。2. 士之不欲死者不足以死君。3. 民之爭物者不信其公。】

所【1.我不信孔子之所信。2.我父欲得仲父所去之家。3.我自棄人所飲之酒。】

爲【1. 小人爲己爭分,君子爲人修節。2. 我不能爲家衣弊衣。3. 君爲民棄不善之行而反德。】

Pivots【1. 淺水使魚逃。2. 齊君使使者往魯。3. 子欲使我趨死乎?】

Double objects【1. 士得邑於公。2. 君獻孔子鳥。3. 民以魚報管仲。】

  • 一單元六課

【趙】The state (and family) of Zhao.、

【簡】1. Bamboo slip, document. 2. To abridge; to be simple; to examine.

【趙簡子】Viscount Jian of Zhao.、

【兵】Weapon; troops.、(The character originally meant “weapon” but soon came to refer to soldiers as well.)

【攻】To attack.、

【令】1. To command, to make, to allow; an order, a command. 2. Local magistrate.(Synonyms (meaning #1): 使(140, verb only); 命(2). There are some differences between 使 and 令. 使 is often used specifically to apply to acts of sending (e.g., to send diplomatic missions or emissaries), whereas 令 often refers to commands (from commanders or rulers).)

【軍】Army.、

【敢】To dare to, to have the audacity to; daring, audacious; audacity.(This character normally functions in conjunction with another verb. You will often find it when a social inferior wishes to soften a statement he is making to a superior (“I dare to tell Your Majesty…”).)

【諫】To remonstrate with.(This word has strong political (and later, Confucian) connotations; specifically, it is used in situations where a minister or servant feels it his duty to criticize his superior's actions.)

【罪】Sin, crime, punishment, blame; to commit a crime; to punish, to blame.(Notice the seemingly contradictory meanings—that both the criminal act and the punishment for it can be represented by the same character. Context will usually make the meaning clear.)

【披】To drape over the shoulders, to wear on the back.、

【甲】Amor, suit of armor, coat of armor.、

【名】Name, reputation, fame; to be named, to be called.、

【盧】Lu. [a personal name](You may often encounter this character as a surname.)

【公盧】Gong Lu. [a proper name](Note that 公 is a surname here, not a feudal title.)

【望】To gaze at from a distance; to hope, to aspire to, to expect; hopes, aspirations.(The character moved from its concrete meaning of “gaze at from a distance” to include a more abstract “gazing” that is, looking off into the future for what one desires. Here, the concrete meaning is used.)

【見】1. To see 2. [Marker of the passive voice; see 9.3 .7]3. To have an audience with [the ruler], to grant an audience to.4. To appear, to be made manifest, to seem (used for 現).

【何】What, how, why. [question word](This character is the most common of all question words. Synonym: 奚. Note that in our lesson text, it is serving either as the adverb "why" ("Why are you laughing?") or as the direct object of 笑, placed idiomatically before the verb ("What are you laughing at?”).)

【乃】But, then, just, only then.(This character is very difficult to pin down, because its use is heavily modal (i.e., it often illustrates a feeling or a mood and does not convey a precise meaning).)

【有以】To have the means to, to have the wherewithal to.(These characters are followed by a verb. The phrase's antonym, obviously, is 無以. Pulleyblank points out that 有以 is a contraction of 有所以, “to have that by which" (Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar, p. 49). If that is too complicated for you to grasp easily at this point, it is probably best just to take the term as I define it here.)

【解】To untie, to loosen, to get rid of; to solve [a problem]; to break [a siege]; to explain.(The wide range of meanings for this character all derive from its meaning “to untie” (and hence, to alleviate some difficult situation).)

【當】1. Occupying [a place or time]; facing. 2. To be about to. [future marker] 3. Ought, should, must; to accept as suitable.(This character has a wide variety of meanings. We can divide these into three categories: a verbal meaning emphasizing time, occupation, or position; an adverbial meaning emphasizing futurity; and an adverbial meaning emphasizing suitability. In this lesson's text, the character is used idiomatically with the very common expression 當X 之時, "occupying the time of X” (i.e., “when”). Its use here is strictly unnecessary, however: X 之時 appears even more often. Radical 102 (田).)

【桑】Mulberry tree, mulberry-leaf harvest.

【鄰】Neighbor; neighboring, next; to be a neighbor to, to be next to.

【夫】1. Man, person, husband. 2. “Now then…. ” [particle introducing opinion] 3. This, these, that, those, [demonstrativepronoun]

【與】1. And 2. With, [coverb] 3. To give. 4. To belong to, to be a part of (see Lesson 21). 5. [Question particle.](This extremely common character has a wide variety of uses. As a conjunction, it only connects nouns, and thus it is quite different from 而. As a coverb, it is used to indicate participation of some other person or thing with the subject of the sentence; often it is impossible to distinguish whether the character is best interpreted in such cases to mean “and” or "with" (in this lesson's text sentence, it could be either). The question particle function is used to abbreviate the character 歟.)

【妻】Wife.、

【俱】All, together.、

【田】Field.、

【女】1. Woman, girl, female, daughter. 2. [Informal second person pronoun; used for 汝.](The second meaning is found mostly in early texts.)

【因】1. Thereupon, therefore. 2. To go through, to make use of to take advantage of.(The original meaning of this character seems to be related to the word for "cushion" or “pillow” which was written later with the grass radical (茵). Meaning #2 resulted from an abstract derivation of this meaning: someone may "lean" on a previous event or person in order to proceed to the next event, just as one “leans” on a pillow (hence, the coverbal/verbal meaning of 因— “to go through,” ”to make use of”). Furthermore, the most common and even more abstract meaning “thereupon” or “therefore” came about from this (an event “leans” upon a previous event in order to occur). Unlike in Mandarin, where this character almost always implies a direct causal connection between two actions (“therefore”), in literary Chinese this character is more often a simple marker of what happens next ("thereupon").)

【追】To pursue, to chase, to follow.、

【還】To go back to, to return, to give something back.(Synonyms: 反, 歸.)

【曠】Empty, distant; to be alone; to be without a spouse.(Note that 其曠 suggests that the author is thinking of 曠 as a noun: “his single status,” “his loneliness.”)

【今】Now, at present.、

【吾】I, me. [first person pronoun]、(Although there may have been some difference between 我 and 吾 in very early China, you will find essentially no difference in their use in any text you read.)

【伐】To attack, to do violence to; to cut down [a tree].(Synonym: 攻.)

【是】This, these.

【於是】Thereupon (lit., “from this “).(This phrase is used to indicate the next event in a temporal sequence. Synonym: 因.)

【罷】To end, to close, to demobilize [an army], to dismiss.、

【師】1. Army 2. Teacher; to take as one’s teacher.(In meaning #1, this character is a slightly old-fashioned word for “army.” In later times, 軍(174) is used much more frequently for this meaning. Also, note that whereas 師 and 軍 can both be translated as “army,” 兵(171) refers more to the soldiers themselves and is best translated as “troops.” In meaning #2 (first encountered in Lesson 20), the character is usually a noun—but as a verb it implies the act of taking on or choosing a teacher for oneself. For example:吾師孔子, “I take Confucius as my teacher.”)

【令軍中有敢諫者罪至死】If there is anyone in the army who dares to remonstrate, I will punish him as far as death.、

【有敢諫者罪至死】If there is anyone who dares remonstrate, [I] will punish [him] as far as death.、

【敢諫者罪至死】He who dares remonstrate [I] will punish as far as death.、

PRACTICE【1. 有善人天報以福。善人天報以福。2. 有飲酒者我賜之觴。飲酒者我賜之觴。3. 有敢諫者碰之往魯°敢諫者錄之往魯。4. 家有不孝者父出之。家之不孝者父出之。5. 有追桑中女者罪至死。追桑中女者罪至死。】

【魯公仁人也】The Duke of Lu is a kind man.、

【魯公仁】The Duke of Lu is kind.、

【此齊國】This is the state of Qi. (Note the missing 也!)

【管仲,知修行而諫其君者也。】Guan Zhong is one who knows how to cultivate his conduct and remonstrate with his lord.、

【子之所往,趙也。】The place you are going to is Zhao.、

【公盧之所諫,趙簡子也。】The one whom Gong Lu remonstrated with is Viscount Jian of Zhao、

【魚所逃,淺水也。】What fish flee is shallow water、

【我所不飮,酒也。】What I don't drink is ale、

【酒,我所不飮也。】Ale is what I don't drink.、

【魚,我所欲也。】 Fish is what I like、

【今吾伐國失國,是吾曠也。】Now I am attacking a state and losing a state—this is my "loneliness."

【今吾伐國失國,吾曠也。】Now my attacking a state and losing a state is my "loneliness."、

Character List【i. 乃今令伐何俱兵名吾因夫女妻師敢是望桑田甲當罪罷與見解軍趙追還鄰(31) ii. 披攻曠盧簡諫(6)】

  • 一單元七課

【伯】1. Senior or elder of a group of brothers (as opposed to 伸 [113] the middle brother). 2. “Earl” (a feudal title; see 4.1 above).(Note that 伯父, like 仲父, can refer to an uncle.)

【牙】Tooth, tusk.、

【伯牙子】Master Bo Ya (name of a famous musician).、

【鼓】1. Dram; to drum; to strum [a stringed musical instrument]. 2. To wield, to brandish [usually a sword or a knife].(Whereas this character usually refers to drums and the playing of drums, it also came to be used for the idea of strumming with the hand, or swinging a weapon.)

【琴】Zither, harp.(This character actually refers to a seven-stringed or nine-stringed instrument, long and board-like, that is strummed with the hands while resting in the lap or when placed in front of one on the ground. It is associated in Chinese culture with the high "classical" arts of the well-educated gentleman.)

【鍾】1. To gather, to concentrate. 2. Bushel [of grain] (used to measure the salary of an official).

【鍾子期】Zhongzi Qi (a close friend of 伯牙子)、

【聽】1. To listen to, to heed. 2. To allow, to permit, to give permission to.(Generally speaking, 聞 can refer to any unintentional act of hearing, whereas 聽 tends to refer to deliberate acts of listening.)

【方】1. Just then, just at that moment. 2. Square.3. Scope, method, technique.4. Direction.(This character has a wide range of meanings; the adverbial use, meaning #1, is probably the most common.)

【志】Ambition, will, intention, inclination.、

【太】Great, enormous, significant.、

【山】Mountain, hill.、

【太山】Mt. Tai.(A common early variant for 泰山, the great sacred mountain located in Shandong.)

【哉】[Finalparticle: expresses exclamation or surprise.]、

【善哉】Great! How wonderful! Well done! I’m impressed!、

【巍】Lofty, eminent, imposing.、(As the radical suggests, this character was originally meant to describe mountains or hills, but it can describe other things as well. The reduplication of adjectives to intensify the effect is very common in literary Chinese, especially in poetry.)

【若】1. To resemble, to be like; seemingly, as if, by appearance. 2. If 3. [Informal second person pronoun—used for 汝 (525)](In meaning #1, 若 is thought to be a dialect variant of 如 (129); consequently, 不若 has the same idiomatic meaning as 不如(4a).)

【少】1. Small; few; a little; scarce. 2. To belittle, to consider small 3. Young, youth.(The second meaning is a good example of the "putative" use of an adjective—that is, it represents the mental attitude of a person who applies whatever the adjective is to a phe¬nomenon, thing, or person.)

【選】1. To choose, to select, to elect. 2. A little bit of time.(Note! Meaning #2 (the meaning in this lesson's text) is very rare, and you will hardly ever encounter it. When you do, it will probably be in the compound 少選. When you memorize this character, concentrate on meaning #1.)

【間】Among, in, while.(This character is used in many ways; it is like 中 but with some subtle differences. 間 tends to emphasize that something is in between two other things. In time descriptions, it is used to represent an elapse of time—hence, “ 少選之間 [after] a short interval of time.")

【流】To flow, to cause to flow; a current.、

【湯】1. Hot water, boiling water, soup. 2. Tang (name of an ancient sage king, founder of the Shang 商 dynasty). 3. Seething; flooding. (Note! #3 is an uncommon meaning and pronuncation; #1 is much more common. Here, the character is meant to be poetically descriptive of a river, the way 巍 described hills.)

【破】To smash, to destroy, to break, to defeat [an army or a state]; tattered, broken-down. (When used as an adjective, this character is synonymous with 弊 and is in fact much more common than the latter character.)

【絕】To cut short, to break, to interrupt, to take a direct route or shortcut.、

【弦】String [of a musical instrument], bowstring.(Note the rhythm and symmetry of the four-character phrase 破琴絶弦, with its verb-object-verb-object pattern. This is a very common way of ordering language poetically in literary Chinese.)

【以為】To assume(This two-character verb emphasizes subjective opinion. Unlike in modern Mandarin, however, in literary Chinese it is not necessarily an incorrect assumption.)

【世】Human society, the world; the age, a generation.、

【獨】Alone, lonely, solitary; only.(非獨, “it is not only the case that ,” is a common expression.)

【賢】Worthy, skilled, talented; worthy man, skilled man, talented man.(This word is often paired with 聖, and it represents people who are good and virtuous but not quite up to the level of 聖.)

【亦】1. Also, again 2. Indeed.(Take note of the two chief uses of this very common character—it either implies repetition ("also," "again") or simply is used for emphasis. Context should make clear which meaning is appropriate.)

【然】1. To be so, to be thus, to be right, to act thusly. 2. But. 3. [Optional adverb marker: “in x-manner. “]

【雖】Even though, even if.、

【接】To join, to connect, to meet, to treat.、

【由】1. Reason, source, origin; to come from, to derive from. 2. From, [coverb] 3. To resemble, to be like (used as a substitute for the character 猶.

【奚由】How, why. [question word]、

【盡】To exhaust, to use to the fullest; exhaustively, entirely, completely, thoroughly, all, everyone.(Note the two related series of meanings: a verbal usage that emphasizes exhaustion and completion (e.g., using something up), and an adverbial meaning that emphasizes that an action is thoroughly carried out or that everyone is carrying out the action.)

【驥】[a proper name](The name of a legendary horse; this character is therefore by extension used as a poetic name for fast horses.)

【千】One thousand.、

【里】1. Li (measurement of distance: about 1/3 mile). 2. Village, ward.(In meaning #2, this character can be used to describe both autonomous villages and wards, neighborhoods, or suburbs of larger towns. In some ancient texts, 里 are described as organizational units, consisting of 25, 50, 72, or 100 households.)

【待】To await, to depend on.、

【樂】1. To take pleasure in, to enjoy. 2. Music.(This character is common in both meanings.)

【伯樂】BoLe. [a personal name]、(A man famous for being able to judge good horses; this name is often used symbolically for a ruler who can recognize virtuous and capable men.)

【鼓琴善哉乎】Your playing of the harp is wonderful!、

【善哉乎鼓琴】How wonderful is your harp playing!、

【聖乎孔子!】How sagely is Confucius!

【曠乎追女之夫!】How lonely is the husband pursuing the woman!

【大乎簡子之師!】How large is the army of Viscount Jian!

【易治】easy to be governed well (easily governed)、

【難治】difficult to be governed well (governed with difficulty)、

【足治】sufficient to be governed well (i.e., having sufficient qualities to allow it to be governed)、

【可治】able to be governed well; pemissible to be governed well、

【可鼓】able to be strummed、

【琴可鼓】the harp is able to be strummed、

【X易以V】X is easy to make use of to do the verb、

【X難以V】X is difficult to make use of to do the verb、

【X足以V】X is sufficient to make use of to do the verb、

【X可以V】X is feasible to make use of to do the verb、

【X易以】X is easy to be used ...、

【X難以】X is hard to be used ...、

【X足以】X is sufficient to be used ...、

【X可以】X is feasible to be used ...、

【國可治】The state can be governed.

【公可以治國】The duke can govern the state.

【X易爲V】X is easy to have the verb done on behalf of、

【X難爲V】X is difficult to have the verb done on behalf of、

【X足爲V】X is sufficient to have the verb done on behalf of、

【X可爲V】X is feasible to have the verb done on behalf of、

【以爲世無足爲鼓琴者】he assumed that in the world/generation there did not exist one who was sufficient to have the harp strummed on behalf of.、

【桓公可爲謀】It's feasible to make plans for Duke Huan's sake.

【伯樂足爲至千里】It's sufficient to arrive a thousand li for Bo Le's sake.

【子父難爲行孝】It's difficult to practice filial piety for your father's sake.

【隱吾妻易爲求桑】It's easy to look for mulberries for my wife's sake.

PRACTICE【1. 師可罷。趙簡子可以罷師。2.酒可去。孔子可以去酒。孔子可以去。3. 民可治。民可以治。4.善妻可得。善妻可以得魚。】

PRACTICE【1. 民足爲治國。2. 不善之君足以貴民乎?3.桑中無足爲棄妻者。4.有德之夫可爲待。5.伯牙難爲選琴。】

【鼓琴者】one who plays a harp、

【選師者】one who chooses an army、

【以仁義行治者】one who practices governance with benevolence and virtue

【桓公不聽管仲之言者】the fact that Duke Huan does not listen to Guan Zhong's words...

【齊人失其妻者】the fact that the man of Qi lost his wife...

【入田而接賢者】the fact that [someone] entered the fields and made contact with worthy men...

【鳥者,宿木之物也。】Birds” are things that roost in trees.

【君者,治民之人也。】A "ruler" is a person who governs the people.

【子之所往[者],趙也。】The place you are going to is Zhao.

【公盧之戶斤諫[者],趙簡子也。】The one whom Gong Lu remonstrated with is Viscount Jian of Zhao.

【魚所逃[者],淺水也。】What fish flee is shallow water.

【我所不飲[者],酒也。】What I don't drink is ale. Don't confuse such sentences with simple "actor" uses of ’ 者: 往趙者 子也。The one going to Zhao is you.

【諫趙簡子者,公盧也。】The one remonstrating with Viscount Jian of Zhao is Gong Lu.

【逃淺水者,魚也。】The one fleeing shallow water is a fish.

【不飮酒者,我也。】The one not drinking ale is I.

【齊人之失其妻者】 "those people of Qi who abandoned their wives."

【入田而接賢者】One who enters the field and makes contact with worthy men.

【驥不自至千里,待伯樂而後至。】“Ji does not himself arrive a thousand li. He is waiting for/depending on Bo Le and only then arrives."

【驥不自至千里者,待伯樂而後至也。】‘‘The fact that/the reason why Ji does not himself arrive a thousand li is because he is waiting for/depending on Bo Le and only then arrives."

PRACTICE【1. 趙簡子罷師者,聽公盧之言也。2. 臣爲君盡忠者,君愛之也。3. “ 公盧得妻者,不知選桑也4. ’ 孔子衣破衣而耕者 不受邑於公也。5. 桓公舉兵而伐魯者,魯君不貴之也。】

Character List【i. 世亦伯千哉太少山待志接方樂流湯然獨琴由盡絕聽若賢選里鍾間雖鼓(30) ii. 牙破(2) iii. 弦驥(2) iv. 巍(1)】

  • 一單元八課

【秦】The state of Qin.(A state of pre-imperial China, it was located in present-day Shaanxi 陝西 province. 秦 eventually conquered all other states and established the first Chinese empire.)

【穆】Majestic, reverent.、(This character is relatively rare, but it can be found frequently in posthumous titles.)

【秦穆公】Duke Mu of Qin (r. 659-621 B.C.E.).、

【嘗】1. To taste, to prove, to experience, to try; test. 2. In the past(This character is one of a number in literary Chinese indicating the past tense. Sometimes it is used to represent constant or frequent occurrence in the past ("often").)

【亡】To lose, to destroy, to die, to be lost, to escape.(This character is very common, and it has a wide range of meaningsbut all are tied to loss or absence.)

【駿】Swift.(As the radical suggests, this character often describes fast horses. )

【馬】Horse.、

【巳】1. Already; to end, to stop. 2. [Sentence-endingparticle, used for 矣]、

【殺】To kill.、

【共】Together; both.(Synonym: 俱)

【食】1. Food; to eat. 2. To cause to eat, to feed. 3. Rice, cooked grain.(Compare this character with 飲, “to drink.")

【肉】Meat, flesh.、

【謂】1. To name; to assume, to think. 2. To say [to someone], [coverb](Meaning #2 (as seen in this lesson's text) indicates the person to whom one is speaking, with the pattern 謂X曰. For example: 孔子謂公曰, “Confucius addressed the duke, saying…,” When the person being addressed is clear from the context, then the writer will simply give 謂曰, "he addressed [him], saying ....” Here, when the anecdote reads 穆公謂曰, interpret it to mean “Duke Mu said [to the men]….”)

【諸】1. [Particle: plural marker.] 2. [Fusion particle; equivalent to 之 + 乎(first occurs in Lesson 25).](When placed in front of a noun, 諸 makes the noun plural.)

【皆】All, every.、

【懼】To fear, to dread; fear, timidity.、

【即】1. Right then; immediately; then. 2. To go to, to proceed to.、

【次】Sequence, order; next.(Notice that in this lesson's text, 以次 would mean “by means of order,” that is, “in turn," "one by one.")

【慚】To be ashamed.、

【居】1. To occupy [a place], to live [in a place]. 2. To pass by (of time).(Synonym (meaning #1): 在(79). Meaning #2 occurs at the beginning of sentences to indicate a passage of time: 居三年, “after three years went by”; 居一月, "after a month went by"; and so forth. )

【三】Three; third; three times.、

【年】Year.、

【晉】The state of Jin.(A large, pre-imperial state, Jin occupied the modern provinces of Shanxi and Henan 河南. In the fifth century B.C.E., Jin split apart into three states, one of which was 趙)

【圍】1. To surround, to besiege. 2. Hand-span (measurement of circumference).(Meaning #2 refers to the habit of judging the circumference of a round object by using the length of an extended hand, from tip of little finger to tip of thumb, as a unit of measure.)

【往時】The past, in the past.、

【相】1. Mutually, each other. 2. Government minister; to serve [a state] as a government minister. 3. Physiognomy; fate, fortune, good fortune.(The adverb (meaning #1) is most common, though meaning #2 is encountered frequently in historical writing. Combining this character with the pattern discussed in 252, the expression 相謂曰 means “they addressed each other, saying….” (see also 12.3). )

【恩】Grace, favor, kindness, mercy.(This character is often used for the favors bestowed by the ruler on his people. 報恩 is commonly used to refer to the repayment for such gratitude that a subject undertakes.)

【矣】[Final particle: indicates emphasis or completion of an action.](Note that 已 can serve the same purpose. )

【遂】1. Then, thereupon. 2. To follow, to pursue.(With 因 (196-1) and 於是(11a Lesson 6), 遂 is one of the most common words indicating the temporal sequence of events. )

【潰】To scatter, to destroy; to be scattered, to be destroyed.、

【卒】1. Finally, in the end.2. To die.3. Foot soldier.4. Hastily (used as a substitute for 粹; see Lesson 24 for an example).5. To crowd, to throng (used as a substitute for 萃; see Lesson 33 for an example).(Meanings #2 and #3 are quite common, though they are not encountered in our texts. Synonym (meaning #1):終.)

【勝】To triumph over, to defeat; to be superior to; victory.、

【獲】To catch, to obtain.(Synonym: 得. Also, like 得, 獲 can be used with another verb, “to be able to….”)

【惠公】Duke Hui、

【公飮之】 “the duke had him drink."

【公使之飲酒】“the duke caused him to/made him drink ale."

【飮之酒】"had them drink ale."、

【馬以足殺公。】The horse killed the duke with its hoofs (lit., “feet”).

【簡子圍魯國以師。】It is with an army that Viscount Jian besieges the state of Lu.

【穆公爲兵殺馬。】Duke Mu killed the horses for the sake of his troops.

【兵不得食,穆公爲之殺馬。】The troops were unable to eat, so Duke Mu killed the horses for them.

【馬出足,以殺公。】The horse put out its hoofs and killed the duke with them.

【簡子舉兵,以圍魯國。】Viscount Jian raised troops and besieged the state of Lu with them.

【子愛食魚,吾爲獲之。】You love to eat fish; I'll catch them for you.

【公修仁義,以治國民。】The duke cultivates kindness and justice and by means of them governs the people.

【穆公卒得以解難勝晉】Duke Mu in the end was able to by means of it…(By means of what? Figure it out from the context.)

【獲惠公以歸】He captured Duke Hui and by means of that returned. Here, the action of capturing provides the precondition for his return.

【桓公舉觴以飲之。】Duke Huan raised his cup in order to have him drink.

【馬出足,以殺公。】The horse put out its hoofs and killed the duke with them.

【馬出足以殺公。】The horse put out its hoofs in order to kill the duke.

【簡子舉兵,以圍魯國。】Master Jian raised troops and with them besieged Lu.

【簡子舉兵以圍魯國。】Master Jian raised troops in order to besiege Lu.

PRACTICE:【1. 我還馬,以使民愛我。2. 爲善之君畏己臣,以聽其諫。3.賢士終身修節,以待死君。4.鳥宿於高樹,以獲所愛食之物。】

Character List【i. 三亡共勝卒即嘗居已年懼晉次殺獲皆相矣秦謂諸遂食馬(24) ii. 圍恩慚穆肉駿(6) iv. 潰(1)】

  • 一單元九課

【彌】Increasingly.(Synonym: 加)

【瑕】Flaw, blemish (usually applied to flaws in gems or jewels).

【彌子瑕】Mizi Xia (sexual favorite of the ruler of 衛).

【衛】1. Wei (a small state in pre-imperial China). 2. Guards, guardsmen.

【法】Rule, law, custom.(In Buddhist texts, this character is used for "dharma.")

【竊】1. Secretly, without authorization. 2. To steal 3. "In my own humble way…,” “in my humble opinion.” [adverb making a modest assertion by the speaker]

【駕】To drive a carriage; carriage.、

【車】Cart, carriage, chariot.(Note the classical “reading pronunciation” in Mandarin.)

【刖】Cutting off the feet (a form ofpunishment).(This character is one of a series of characters that indicate various forms of penal amputation. You won't encounter it very often.)

【母】Mother.、

【疾】1. Sick; illness; ache, aching, sore. 2. Swift; rapidly. 3. To criticize, to hate.(Meaning #2 is quite common, but it does not appear in our texts.)

【夜】Night; at night; nightly.、

【告】To announce, to request; announcement.、

【擅】To monopolize, to usurp; for ones own use; selfishly.、

【故】1. Reason; consequently, deliberately; deliberate action. 2. Previously, before, in the past; precedent, consistency.(For a discussion of meaning #1, see 9.5 below. Basically, the character's various uses fall into two categories: meanings related to reason and deliberation (#1), and meanings related to past action and precedent (#2).)

【犯】To commit a crime, to violate, to sin against; offense, crime.

【遊】To travel about, to have fun, to play, to associate [with friends].(This character can refer to children playing or to adults having fun or “hanging out.” Sometimes it's difficult to find an appropriate English equivalent. )

【果】Fruit; to pan out, to result; as expected.("Fruit" was the original meaning of the character (“fruit” is now usually written 菓). The more abstract meanings developed from the idea of something "coming to fruition." )

【園】Garden.(What would be the best translation of 果園 in English?)

【桃】Peach, peach tree, peach blossom.

【甘】Sweet; to be sweet; to find sweet; to spoil [a child]; to indulge.

【奉】1. To offer [to a superior], to accept [from a superior]. 2. Service, attendance.(Note that in meaning #1 this character can represent both giving and receiving; the impor¬tant issue is the inferior social status of the subject. )

【忘】To forget.

【口】Mouth, opening.(This character can also be used as a measure word for people (like “many mouths to feed" in English). )

【味】Taste; to taste.

【及】1. To reach to, to extend to’ to come up to [in quality, ability, or virtue]. 2. When the time came that. . . . 3. And (connects nouns only).(This is a very common character, with a wide range of meanings. As a conjunction, it can only connect nouns. Partial synonym: 至 )

【色】Color, attractiveness, surface appearance; facial expression; sexuality.(This character is significant in Chinese thought—it represents the often ephemeral or deceptive external appearance of things.)

【衰】To wither, to decline, to wane, to weaken.

【弛】To grow slack, to grow weak.(This character has the “bow” component (弓); it originally applied to a bowstring going slack.)

【得罪於】To offend (lit., “to obtain a crime in relation to”).

【矯】To falsify, to fake, to pretend, to forge; falsely, under false pretenses.

【餘】Leftover, remaining, extra.

【未】Not yet, never.(This character is one of the most common negative adverbs, second only to in frequency.)

【必】To be necessary, to have to; necessarily.(Just as in English, 必 can refer to necessity ("You must do this!") as well as predictability and speculation ("He must have done this yesterday").)

【未必】Not necessarily, not inevitably, not always.(不必 is also common.)

【變】To change, to alter; change, alteration; disaster.、

【初】Beginning; initially, from the beginning, at first, earlier.

【前】Front, formerly, at first; to come forward, to step forward.(Note this character's verbal usage, which is also quite common. )

【憎】To hate, to detest.、

【彌子瑕愛於衛君。】Mizi Xia was loved by the Lord of Wei.

【馬食於秦人。】The horse was eaten by the people of Qin.

【公治民而民治於公。】The duke governs the people and the people are governed by the duke.

【孔子信於曾子。】ConfUcius was trusted by Zengzi.

【公見殺。】The duke was killed.

【桃見食。】The peach was eaten;

【鳥見獲。】 the bird was captured;

【車見竊。】 the carriage was stolen;

【恩見忘。】 kindness was forgotten;

【圍見破。】the siege was broken.

【孔子之言見貴於天下之士。】Confucius' words are honored by the knights of the world.

【公飲管仲。】The duke had/made Guan Zhong drink.

【君賢彌子瑕。】The lord thought Mizi Xia worthy.

【孔子難曾子。】ConfUcius found Zengzi difficult ("troublesome").

【孝子先父。】A filial son puts his father first.

【前見賢,後獲罪者】The fact that he was formerly considered to be worthy and afterwards received punishment….”

【是故嘗矯駕吾車】“This [fellow] deliberately once drove my carriage under false pretenses."

【爲母之故,犯刖罪哉。】 For the reason of his mother, he committed a foot- chopping crime."

【以X之故】by means of the reason of X."

【以行仁之故,孔子遊於齊。】For the reason of practicing benevolence, Confucius traveled to Qi.

【以彌子瑕色衰之故,君憎之。】For the reason that Mizi Xia’s beauty faded, the lord hated him.

PRACTICE: 【1. 以水淺之故,魚逃之。2. 水淺,故魚逃之。3. 魚逃水者,水淺也。4. 以不欲出舌之故,管仲半棄酒。5. 管仲不欲出舌,故半棄酒。6. 管仲半棄酒者,不欲出舌也。7. 以憂母疾之故,彌子瑕色衰。8. 彌子瑕憂母疾,故其色衰。9. 彌子瑕色衰者,憂母疾也。10. 以鍾子期不復聽琴之故,伯牙破之。11. 鍾子期不復聽琴,故伯牙破之。12. 伯牙破琴者,鍾子期不復聽之也。】

Character List【i. 初前及口告夜奉彌必忘故未果母法甘疾色衛衰變車遊餘駕(4) ii. 味園桃犯矯竊(6) iii. 弛僧擅瑕(4)】

  • 一單元十課